Moschovidis Z.A.,PCM Inc
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Americas Unconventional Resources Conference 2012 | Year: 2012
Microseismic measurements provide qualitative information about where a fracture stimulation goes. However, there is also quantitative information, which has largely been neglected. We have developed a geomechanical model to predict the extent of shear failure during fracture stimulation of a well. It is a "screening model" meaning point-by-point details of the natural fracture distribution, fluid leakoff, and failure prediction are not emphasized. By matching this to the microseismic cloud of shear failure, we obtain the injection permeability and porosity, which characterize the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). The model identifies different types of failure, tensile and shear, which will occur on vertical planes of weakness or natural fractures. The model can be applied to any formation in which the microseismic data demonstrates a substantial spread away from the expected main fracture plane, as occurs in many tight shales. A number of different geometries have been modeled: horizontal vs vertical wells, and transverse vs longitudinal fractures. Not all wells have microseismic data, but the first few wells usually do, and modeling of these cases can provide useful directives for future wells. For example, the injection permeability can provide information on average fracture spacing and aperture width for the induced fracture network (SRV). These can be important for choosing proppant type, size, and concentration for optimal fracture treatments in gas and oil plays in tight shales. We find the injection permeabilities are relatively high, and these must be associated with fracture-controlled flow. From our case histories, a high injection permeability (>200 md) is required to pressure the formation and achieve failure out as far as the microseismic events extend. Low porosity (< 0.1%) is required for the frac fluid to leak off that far. Reports on interference with offset wells support this interpretation. As a case history, the method and results for sequential stimulation of two sister horizontal wells in the Barnett shale are described. Most of the injection permeability is lost when a well is turned on, and ways to offset this are suggested. One of these ways is to tailor the proppant to the width and spacing of the induced fracture network, to prop more effectively the network of induced fractures. We illustrate some initial guidelines for choosing proppant type, size, and concentration which may improve fracture treatments in tight shales. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source
PCM Inc | Date: 2013-12-11
A golf glove magnetic attachment adaptor has a magnetic body and a male snap stud. The magnetic body includes a magnet and a magnet casing; the magnet casing having an end wall, a lateral wall, and an end cap. The magnet is positioned within the magnet casing and allows the golf glove magnetic attachment adaptor to be attached to any substantially ferrous metal object. The male snap stud is centrally connected to the magnet casing opposite the magnet and allows the golf glove magnetic attachment adaptor to be attached to a female snap socket of a golf glove. In turn, the golf glove can be attached to any desired metal object. The golf glove magnetic attachment adaptor also functions as a ball marker when detached from the golf glove by depressing the male snap stud into the ground in order to anchor the magnetic body in place.
PCM Inc | Date: 2014-08-28
A helical rotor intended to be arranged in a progressing cavity pump, said progressing cavity pump being capable of pumping a multiphase fluid from a fluid reserve, the helical rotor comprising at least one mixer capable of homogenizing the multiphase fluid located in said fluid reserve.
PCM Inc | Date: 2014-08-12
A torque anchor intended to block the rotation of a production string with respect to a casing of a well; the torque anchor comprising a body and anchor cassettes comprising a wheel having a circumference and a wheel spindle supporting said wheel, a contact point of the circumference of the wheel being intended to come into contact with the casing, an opposite point being arranged diametrically opposite the contact point. For each anchor cassette, the wheel is mounted on the end of the wheel spindle; a positioning angle comprised between 30 and 180 being defined between a first straight line passing through the centre of the casing and the contact point and a second straight line passing through the centre of the casing and the opposite point.
PCM Inc | Date: 2010-07-19
A progressing cavity pump comprises a stator having an inlet end for coupling to a fluid-receiving casing, the pump including an anchor element suitable for fastening the inlet end of the stator on a stationary support, and said inlet end and said anchor element including locking means for locking them together in rotation.