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News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Mechanical parts that can collect and transmit data on their status for predictive maintenance. These are just a few examples of the applications at or near full-scale commercialization that in some way benefit from printable, flexible and wearable electronics (PE). Inks that can conduct electricity – made from materials such as graphite, silver, and copper – are printed on a substrate at high enough density to form a complete electronic circuit, but thin enough to have negligible impact on the substrate thickness. The substrate can be rigid, flexible or even stretchable, such as paper, plastic, fabric or glass. These inks can be applied through traditional printing processes through fast and inexpensive automated processes, such as those used in the commercial printing industry for newspapers and magazines. Components can also be embedded though additive manufacturing processes, such as 3D printing or in-mold electronics. A related field involves conductive yarns which can be woven into fabric to create smart garments. PE can be used to create discreet components such as displays, conductors, transistors, sensors, light emitting diodes, photovoltaic energy capture cells, memory, logic processing, system clocks, antennas, batteries, and low-voltage electronic interconnects. These can be integrated into simple systems that, for example, can record, store, and then transmit temperature information. Fully functional electronic systems can be created in this way, or discreet components and sub-systems can be produced to function as part of a hybrid solution with conventional silicon-based integrated circuits or components. Compared to traditional silicon, PE components are lighter, thinner, cheaper to manufacture and capable of being flexible or even stretchable. As an additive technology, they can be produced without the capital-intensive manufacturing processes typical of silicon that are often wasteful and environmentally harmful. With PE, electronics can be embedded into printed 3D devices and components. We can enable a new generation of wearable healthcare technologies, smart fabrics, flexible electronics, connected homes that conserve energy, and even smart packaging that can reduce food and packaging waste. Here are a few examples: OPV cells use conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the same photovoltaic effect used by conventional solar cells. This technology is another example of the switch from silicon to carbon-based electronics, with the resulting benefits of low cost, high production volume and significant environmental benefits. These flexible solar cells based on thin films can potentially be incorporated into a variety of materials— from window blinds to glass and roofing materials. A building’s entire exterior could be turned into a power generator, in a far more flexible and cost-effective way than is possible with conventional inorganic solar cells. In addition to energy harvesting applications for residential and commercial buildings, OPV also has applications in automotive, point-of-sale and advertising, apparel and consumer electronics. New high sensitivity OPVs, such as those from CPEIA Member company Wibicom, can even harvest ambient light for low-power applications such as self-powered sensors and self-powered antennas. But some technical hurdles remain to be overcome for mass adoption of OPV to be achievable within another decade. Work is ongoing around the globe to increase the efficiency, stability and strength of organic cells. The industry’s goal is to develop OPV cells suitable for mass production that can deliver a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of least 10 percent for 10 years. PE is ideal for additive manufacturing processes like 3D printing and in-mold electronics, to embed functionality inside a part or assembly. This reduces the bulk and expense of external hard wiring to connect electronic systems and assemblies. By the same token, intelligence can be added to a part with low-cost printed electronic tags, labels and serialized sensor matrices. These are digital fingerprints that can be used to identify and authenticate a part. With PE tags and sensors, parts and assemblies can collect and transmit data on their use and usage conditions, heat, stress and so forth. All this data can be collected and stored in the cloud, for remote monitoring and predictive analytics to carry out preventative maintenance and repair. This intelligence can be economically added to anything from a wind turbine blade, to a building systems such as elevators and HVAC, or any of the subsystems or structural members found on automobiles, aircraft and so forth. Anyone who uses a blood glucose monitor is already using a printed sensor – it’s on the disposable test strip. This kind of sensing technology has been on the market for some time. The next step is to develop the conductive ink and paste, substrate and enclosure materials needed for more rugged and long-term applications. Efforts are already well underway. Market research firm IDTechEx predicts the overall market for printed sensors will reach US$7.6 billion by 2027. Wearable technology has gone mainstream in a few short years. Many of us are taking advantage of devices worn on our person to enhance our athletic performance, monitor health and fitness indicators such as heart rate and breathing, and ensure the wellbeing and safety of the elderly. Wearable devices already on the market include bracelets, watches and necklaces, as well as athletic wear such as sports bras and shirts. We even have smart temperature stickers that monitor a child’s vital signs during sleep. The discrete form factors, flexibility and cost advantages of PE versus conventional electronics are crucial to make most of these devices and applications affordable and practical. Another rapidly growing application area is smart garments and textiles. Take, for example, OMSignal. This Canadian company develops functional smart apparel to help people live active, fit and healthy lives. It is, for example, the smart textile and software technology behind Ralph Lauren’s PoloTech collection. Last year, OMSignal launched the OMBra. From a biomechanical standpoint, this smart garment is designed to absorb the strain and pressure of running. But it is also a piece of fitness technology, equipped with three heart rate sensors, a breathing wire (the first on the market) and an accurate motion/accelerometer sensor. Patent-pending algorithms in the OMbra app combine heart rate and breathing to provide personalized feedback. The more a woman runs, the more the app adapts to her body so she can meet her weight goals and safely improve her training. Where is the PE market going? Global revenues for products using PE in 2016 is estimated at US$26.9 billion, an annual increase of 31.8 per cent since 2010. Consulting firm Smithers Apex expects the market to grow to an estimated US$43 billion by 2020. A separate forecast from IDTechEx predicts a US$70-billion market by 2024, for applications ranging from organic LEDs (OLEDs) to conductive inks for a variety of applications. Hundreds of millions of dollars in joint funding initiatives between U.S. industry, academia and government have been announced in the past few years to create the Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing Institute, The Revolutionary Fibers and Textiles Manufacturing Innovation Institute, and the Smart Manufacturing Innovation Institute. As the united voice of Canada’s PE sector, the Canadian Printable Electronics Industry Association (CPEIA) is working to secure similar multi-stakeholder support for comparable industry-driven development and commercialization initiatives here in Canada. From May 24-26 at Centennial College in Toronto, Canada, the CPEIA will host CPES2017. This is Canada’s premier conference and trade show exhibition dedicated to printable, flexible and wearable electronics. Visit www.cpes2017.ca to learn more.


Metso signs distribution agreement with Process Control Equipment to develop customer presence and service levels in the UK, Benelux and Spain Metso Corporation press release on June 28, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. EET Metso has signed a distribution agreement for its valve products with Process Control Equipment, PCE, to cover UK, Benelux and Spain. Under the non-exclusive agreement, PCE will add to its current portfolio of Metso's Neles and Jamesbury product families for all process industries in all countries. PCE has been distributing Metso's Jamesbury valves in the UK since 2012. "The new agreement brings benefits for Metso's customers in UK, Benelux and Spain to ensure better availability and service support for them. The expansion of distributors in these countries will bring additional value, including more local support, local inventories, and faster deliveries of our products," states Kyle Rayhill, Director of Global Distribution, Flow Control, Metso. "We are excited to expand our cooperation with Metso. Our business has seen significant growth in recent years in supplying manual and actuated valves to a wide range of clients in numerous sectors. We see that there is great synergy between our current offering and Metso's valve product range. This new partnership will help ensure that PCE and Metso continue to grow into the future," comments Richard Jackson, Managing Director of Process Control Equipment Ltd. Development of the distribution channel is one the most important strategic growth initiatives in many key markets for Metso's Flow Control business. Metso has a strong direct sales organization and an extensive service network globally to serve its flow control customers. The target for distribution development is to strengthen Metso's presence in the traditional core areas and to open new markets. In North America, Metso's Flow Control business already has a well-established distribution network serving the process industries. "We have a strong global presence and installed base, and our reliable and well-known Neles and Jamesbury valve solutions are demanded by customers. We are looking for distributors who are already recognized players in their markets, who see the specific value of our products and are willing to make the investment to promote our products. In addition, they should have the ability to carry the inventory and have proven closeness with their customers," concludes Kyle Rayhill. Metso's extensive flow control services offering covers expert services from maintenance planning and execution to performance solutions. Metso's valve technology centers and valve production facilities are in Finland, the United States, Germany, China, South Korea, India and Brazil. Metso over 40 valve and field device service centers worldwide. Metso has a solid experience in delivering engineered performance and reliability to the oil & gas, pulp & paper and process industry customers through its leading product families Neles® and Jamesbury®. PCE is amongst the largest, independently owned stockists and distributors of valves, actuators, pipes, fittings and instrumentation in Europe. Founded and headquartered in North East England, PCE has locations in Scotland, Spain, and the Netherlands, as well as a sister company HT-PCE based in North West England. http://www.processcontrolequipment.co.uk/ Metso is a world-leading industrial company serving the mining, aggregates, recycling, oil, gas, pulp, paper and process industries. We help our customers improve their operational efficiency, reduce risks and increase profitability by using our unique knowledge, experienced people and innovative solutions to build new, sustainable ways of growing together. Our products range from mining and aggregates processing equipment and systems to industrial valves and controls. Our customers are supported by a broad scope of services and a global network of over 80 service centers and about 6,000 service professionals. Metso has an uncompromising attitude towards safety. Metso is listed on the Nasdaq Helsinki in Finland and had sales of about EUR 2.6 billion in 2016. Metso employs over 11,000 people in more than 50 countries. Expect results. A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/d5e9bf36-8655-4b0f-8966-52af284df4c4 A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/a0c7c72f-a65f-4509-804c-0b6c3b8b9f72 A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/2803832b-1d59-45e8-a5a7-52c201786fe4 A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/e4ae4b65-7daa-4f62-883b-95648884863b


Colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices are promising candidates for low-cost power sources owing to their low-temperature solution processability and bandgap tunability. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of >10% is achieved for these devices; however, there are several remaining obstacles to their commercialization, including their high energy loss due to surface trap states and the complexity of the multiple-step CQD-layer-deposition process. Herein, high-efficiency photovoltaic devices prepared with CQD-ink using a phase-transfer-exchange (PTE) method are reported. Using CQD-ink, the fabrication of active layers by single-step coating and the suppression of surface trap states are achieved simultaneously. The CQD-ink photovoltaic devices achieve much higher PCEs (10.15% with a certified PCE of 9.61%) than the control devices (7.85%) owing to improved charge drift and diffusion. Notably, the CQD-ink devices show much lower energy loss than other reported high-efficiency CQD devices. This result reveals that the PTE method is an effective strategy for controlling trap states in CQDs.


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

Browse 70 market data tables and 57 figures spread through 157 pages and in-depth TOC on "Moisture Analyzer Market - Global Forecast to 2022" http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/moisture-analyzer-market-72110933.html Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. Food and beverage vertical holds the largest share of the moisture analyzer market The food and beverage vertical held the largest market share of the overall moisture analyzer market in 2016. This huge demand from the food and beverage vertical can be attributed to the stringent government regulations for maintaining the high quality of edible products by maintaining the moisture content in the product at the desired level. Near-infrared expected to be the fastest growing analyzing technique in the moisture analyzer market The moisture analyzer market for the near-infrared (NIR) analyzing technique is expected to grow at the fastest rate during the forecast period. This is mainly because NIR analyzers provide the opportunity to measure moisture content in the product during the manufacturing process. With the growing process automation in various industries, the demand for in-line moisture analysis is growing, and NIR analyzers are the best fit for the continuous analysis of moisture during the product manufacturing process. The Americas is the major consumer of moisture analyzers The Americas accounted for largest share of the overall moisture analyzer market in 2016. This region is home to several moisture analyzer manufacturers, along with industries such as food and beverages, and pharmaceuticals, which are the major consumers of this equipment. The report also profiles the most promising players in the moisture analyzer market. The competitive landscape of the market is highly dynamic because of the presence of a significant number of big and small players. The key players in the market are PCE Instruments (Germany), Michell Instruments Inc. (England), Ametek Inc. (US), SpectraSesnsors Inc. (US), General Electric Co. (US), A&D Co., Ltd. (Japan), Kett Electric Laboratory (Japan), Mettler-Toledo International Inc. (US), Sartorius AG (Germany), Shimadzu Corp. (Japan), Gow-Mac Instrument Co. (US), Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corp. (Japan), Sinar Technology (England), Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (US), and U-Therm International (H.K.) Ltd. (Hong Kong). Tunable Diode Laser Analyzer (TDLA) Market by Methodology (In-Situ and Extractive), Gas Analyzer Type (Oxygen (O2), Ammonia (NH3), COX, Moisture (H2O), CxHx, HX), Industry (Oil & Gas, Cement, Power), and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/tunable-diode-laser-analyzer-market-120588467.html Soil Moisture Sensor Market by Type (Volumetric and Water Potential), Application (Agriculture, Residential, Landscaping, Sports Turf, Weather Forecasting, Forestry, Research Studies and Construction), & Geography - Global trends & Forecast to 2020 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/soil-moisture-sensor-market-140653896.html MarketsandMarkets™ provides quantified B2B research on 30,000 high growth niche opportunities/threats which will impact 70% to 80% of worldwide companies' revenues. Currently servicing 5000 customers worldwide including 80% of global Fortune 1000 companies as clients. Almost 75,000 top officers across eight industries worldwide approach MarketsandMarkets™ for their painpoints around revenues decisions. Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets™ are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model - GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. MarketsandMarkets™ now coming up with 1,500 MicroQuadrants (Positioning top players across leaders, emerging companies, innovators, strategic players) annually in high growth emerging segments. MarketsandMarkets™ is determined to benefit more than 10,000 companies this year for their revenue planning and help them take their innovations/disruptions early to the market by providing them research ahead of the curve. MarketsandMarkets's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets.


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

Browse 70 market data tables and 57 figures spread through 157 pages and in-depth TOC on "Moisture Analyzer Market - Global Forecast to 2022" http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/moisture-analyzer-market-72110933.html Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. Food and beverage vertical holds the largest share of the moisture analyzer market The food and beverage vertical held the largest market share of the overall moisture analyzer market in 2016. This huge demand from the food and beverage vertical can be attributed to the stringent government regulations for maintaining the high quality of edible products by maintaining the moisture content in the product at the desired level. Near-infrared expected to be the fastest growing analyzing technique in the moisture analyzer market The moisture analyzer market for the near-infrared (NIR) analyzing technique is expected to grow at the fastest rate during the forecast period. This is mainly because NIR analyzers provide the opportunity to measure moisture content in the product during the manufacturing process. With the growing process automation in various industries, the demand for in-line moisture analysis is growing, and NIR analyzers are the best fit for the continuous analysis of moisture during the product manufacturing process. The Americas is the major consumer of moisture analyzers The Americas accounted for largest share of the overall moisture analyzer market in 2016. This region is home to several moisture analyzer manufacturers, along with industries such as food and beverages, and pharmaceuticals, which are the major consumers of this equipment. The report also profiles the most promising players in the moisture analyzer market. The competitive landscape of the market is highly dynamic because of the presence of a significant number of big and small players. The key players in the market are PCE Instruments (Germany), Michell Instruments Inc. (England), Ametek Inc. (US), SpectraSesnsors Inc. (US), General Electric Co. (US), A&D Co., Ltd. (Japan), Kett Electric Laboratory (Japan), Mettler-Toledo International Inc. (US), Sartorius AG (Germany), Shimadzu Corp. (Japan), Gow-Mac Instrument Co. (US), Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corp. (Japan), Sinar Technology (England), Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (US), and U-Therm International (H.K.) Ltd. (Hong Kong). Tunable Diode Laser Analyzer (TDLA) Market by Methodology (In-Situ and Extractive), Gas Analyzer Type (Oxygen (O2), Ammonia (NH3), COX, Moisture (H2O), CxHx, HX), Industry (Oil & Gas, Cement, Power), and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/tunable-diode-laser-analyzer-market-120588467.html Soil Moisture Sensor Market by Type (Volumetric and Water Potential), Application (Agriculture, Residential, Landscaping, Sports Turf, Weather Forecasting, Forestry, Research Studies and Construction), & Geography - Global trends & Forecast to 2020 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/soil-moisture-sensor-market-140653896.html MarketsandMarkets™ provides quantified B2B research on 30,000 high growth niche opportunities/threats which will impact 70% to 80% of worldwide companies' revenues. Currently servicing 5000 customers worldwide including 80% of global Fortune 1000 companies as clients. Almost 75,000 top officers across eight industries worldwide approach MarketsandMarkets™ for their painpoints around revenues decisions. Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets™ are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model - GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. MarketsandMarkets™ now coming up with 1,500 MicroQuadrants (Positioning top players across leaders, emerging companies, innovators, strategic players) annually in high growth emerging segments. MarketsandMarkets™ is determined to benefit more than 10,000 companies this year for their revenue planning and help them take their innovations/disruptions early to the market by providing them research ahead of the curve. MarketsandMarkets's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets.


The report titled "China Construction Chemical Market Outlook 2020 - Increased Investment In Infrastructure Development And Rise In Demand For Real Estate to Drive Future Growth" provides a comprehensive analysis of construction chemical market in China. The report focuses on overall market size of construction chemical in China, segmentation on the basis of type of construction chemical including concrete admixture (PCE Based, SNF Based and Ligno Based), waterproofing material, flooring compounds (Epoxy and Polyurethane based flooring), repair and rehabilitation and others. The report also covers list of major projects under construction, snapshot of market structure, future outlook, growth drivers, trends and developments, issues and challenges. The report concludes with market projection for future and analyst recommendation highlighting the major opportunities and cautions. Key Topics Covered: 1. Executive Summary 2. Research Methodology 3. China Construction Chemical Market Introduction Evolution of Construction Chemical Demand In China Competition In Chinese Construction Chemical market Major Products in China Construction Chemical Market 4. China Construction Chemical by Market Size, 2010-2015 5. China Construction Chemical Market Segmentation 5.1. By Type of Construction Chemical, 2015 5.2. By Concrete Admixture, 2015 5.3. By Flooring Compounds, 2015 5.4. By Repair and Rehabilitation, 2015 6. Competition Benchmarking in China Construction Chemicals Market 7. Competitive Landscape of Major Players in China Construction Chemicals Market 8. Recent Trends in China Construction Chemicals Market 8.1. Growth Drivers and Trends Construction Sector-Infrastructure development Increasing Urbanization Rapid Real Estate Development Surging Cement Consumption Increased Awareness Development of High Speed Rail Increased Focus on Quality Fragmented market Leading to Intense Competition 9. China Construction Chemical Future Outlook and Projection By Revenue, 2016-2020 9.1. Future Outlook by Segment, 2016-2020 10. Analyst Recommendation Companies Mentioned - Beijing Jinkai - Beijing Oriental Yuhong - CFL China - Jia hua Chemicals - Muhu Chemicals - Sika - Weifang Hongyuan Waterproof Materials For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/cknfvw/china Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager press@researchandmarkets.com For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/research-and-markets---china-construction-chemical-market-outlook-2020-featuring-beijing-jinkai-beijing-oriental-yuhong-cfl-china-jia-hua-chemicals-muhu-chemicals-sika--weifang-hongyuan-waterproof-materials-300453349.html


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.nature.com

To begin with, we investigate the effect of light on perovskite formation by sequential deposition. In this method, lead iodide (PbI ) is deposited onto a mesoporous TiO scaffold, which is then dipped in a methylammonium iodide (CH NH I; MAI) solution to convert it to methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH NH PbI ). We monitor the reaction of PbI films in a 6 mg ml−1 MAI solution in 2-propanol, both in the dark and under illumination of approximately solar intensity, using confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM) to image samples at different dipping times. (We refer to this level of light intensity as 1 Sun: it is produced by a white light-emitting diode (LED) array supplying approximately 100 mW cm−2; see Methods for details.) CLSM spatially maps the emissive chemical constituents by exploiting the differences in their emission spectra. We take up the case of the reaction in the dark, starting with an unreacted PbI film and progressing to samples at increasing dipping times in the MAI solution. As seen in the CLSM image and the corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) inset in Fig. 1a, the freshly spin-coated PbI film shows no distinct features that can be attributed to crystals. According to the literature12, crystalline metal halides show stronger luminescence when compared with amorphous components. Spots with a prominent PbI emission, distinguishable from the surrounding PbI , are observed in the CLSM image of a sample dipped for 6 s (Fig. 1b). They correspond in size and shape (hexagonal platelets characteristic of the 2H polytype of PbI ; refs 13, 14, 15) to the crystals seen in the SEM inset of Fig. 1b, indicating that PbI crystallizes before the formation of perovskite. Only with an increased dipping time (8 s) do we detect small amounts of perovskite (shown in red), present in the central parts of the crystalline PbI clusters, in the CLSM image (Fig. 1c). This indicates that the onset of intercalation6, 13, 16 of MAI into the PbI crystals occurs subsequent to the crystallization of PbI . This is followed by structural reorganization, which results in PbI –perovskite mixed crystals, and to our knowledge such observations have not been previously reported. The progress of the intercalation is apparent in Fig. 1d and e, which show a sample dipped for 10 and 60 s, respectively. We then study the CLSM images of samples dipped in MAI solution under 1 Sun illumination (Fig. 1f–i). Comparing these images with those obtained from samples made in the dark, we notice major differences. (1) The intercalation commences and ends much earlier under illumination, indicating that the rate of perovskite formation is greatly increased. (2) Crystals formed under illumination are smaller and more numerous (additional observations are given in Supplementary Information). At this point, we investigate the nucleation mode of the PbI film. The images of the film at increasing times of exposure to the MAI solution in the dark (Fig. 1b–d) show that the number of crystals does not increase after the initial nucleation. This indicates essentially instantaneous nucleation, such that new nuclei do not form after the initial seconds of dipping. This shows that the PbI crystals originate from a finite number of potential nuclei formed during the PbI deposition step17. This can be understood by considering the thermal history of the film. Its rapid drying, after deposition at 70 °C, results in a film that has both amorphous domains and minute crystalline clusters of PbI (refs 13, 17; see below). Such a film is metastable at lower temperatures, with a tendency to crystallize further17. These minute crystalline clusters are the potential nuclei that possess the capacity to grow instantaneously on exposure to an MAI solution by consuming the amorphous component, before converting into perovskite. As the nucleation occurs due to the presence of crystals of the material being crystallized, we classify the nucleation of PbI in our system as secondary nucleation18. Interestingly, we observe that well-annealed PbI films do not show a high nucleation density as they lack the amorphous component needed for the nuclei to grow (see Extended Data Fig. 1 for SEM images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis). Before we investigate the mechanism of the light-activated nucleation, we quantify the effect of the light intensity. We captured SEM images of samples dipped in MAI solution for 25 s in the dark, and under light intensities of 0.001 Sun, 0.01 Sun, 0.1 Sun and 1 Sun, as shown in Fig. 2a. The count of PbI –perovskite mixed crystals for each sample (Fig. 2b) corresponds to the nucleation density in each case, since PbI exhibits instantaneous nucleation. Although the nucleation density is low in the dark, it increases logarithmically with the light intensity present during dipping, thus confirming the occurrence of light-activated nucleation. We considered the possibility that heating due to illumination is the cause of the light-activated nucleation. However, using evidence from the following variable-temperature and variable-light study, we rule out this possibility. By comparing samples made under a light intensity of either 0.01 Sun or 1 Sun, we see that perovskite formation at higher temperatures results in large crystals due to a higher growth rate (Extended Data Fig. 2). This is contrary to the light effect that enhances nucleation and gives numerous small crystals, as observed upon comparing samples made under 0.01 Sun and 1 Sun at the same temperature (Extended Data Fig. 2, Fig. 2). So this also rules out the possibility of illumination changing the growth rate rather than the nucleation step. Consequently, we attribute the light-activated nucleation to the generation of electron–hole pairs, rather than to a thermal phenomenon. To verify whether photo-generated electron–hole pairs enhance nucleation, we investigate the effect of photon energy on nucleation. In Fig. 2c we show the absorbance of a PbI film as a function of photon energy (upper x axis; the wavelength is shown on the lower x axis). We choose two photon energies (2.0 eV and 2.5 eV) that are respectively below and above the absorption onset. In Fig. 2d and e we show SEM images of PbI films dipped in MAI solution for 25 s under monochromatic illumination of photon energy 2.0 eV and 2.5 eV, respectively. Comparable photon fluxes were used in these experiments. They demonstrate that a higher nucleation density is attained on above-gap illumination, indicating that photons absorbed by the PbI and generating electron–hole pairs enhance nucleation. To gain deeper insight into the mechanism through which absorbed light enhances the nucleation of PbI , we performed photo-electrochemical experiments (Extended Data Fig. 3). Using chopped light chronopotentiometry, we first ascertained that a crystalline PbI film was photo-active and of n-type. Furthermore, we observed transient behaviour in the potential on switching from 1 Sun illumination to the dark, indicative of charge trapping or accumulation at the PbI –electrolyte interface. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we confirmed the presence of surface traps in the PbI film, which are located below mid-gap (see detailed discussion in Supplementary Information, Extended Data Fig. 4). We discuss below the role of these traps in the light-activated nucleation. At this point, we propose a mechanism for the secondary nucleation of the PbI film, both in the dark and under illumination. The crucial thermodynamic factors in nucleation are the critical free energy of nucleation (ΔG*), which is the height of the nucleation barrier or the work of formation of the critical nucleus, and the critical cluster size (N*). They can be described using equations (1)19 and (2)19 below in the case of homogeneous nucleation in solids: Here μ and μ are the respective chemical potentials of the bulk amorphous and crystalline phases, Γ is the interfacial free energy per unit interfacial area for the ith area, and η is the shape factor for the ith area, a term dependent on the shape the cluster adopts to minimize its energy. Although heterogeneous nucleation may be a more appropriate description of our system, for simplicity we use the equations for the homogeneous case. We interpret them by considering the unusual contact with the MAI, as discussed later. Reports6, 13 have shown that a PbI film is of the 2H polytype and displays a preferential orientation such that the (001) face of the crystalline clusters is in contact with the MAI solution, as shown in Fig. 3a–c. We suggest that the amorphous component, apart from crystallizing in situ, is transported, possibly through the MAI solution or along the surface of the film, to add to crystalline clusters resulting in their growth (Fig. 3c). For the (001) face, the interfacial free energy is a function of the crystal–MAI solution interfacial tension (γ) (ref. 20) and influenced by the MAI solution in contact with the face. From Lippmann’s equation, we derive the expression for the surface tension as20, 21: where γ is the surface tension at zero charge, σ is the excess surface charge and c is the double-layer capacitance. Figure 3d shows the relationship between the free energy change and cluster size, depicting the critical free energy of nucleation and critical cluster size in the dark and under illumination. The sum of the interfacial and the volume free energy terms gives the total free energy change in each case. In the dark, there exists a particular value of the critical free energy, denoted , and the corresponding critical cluster size, denoted . The metastable PbI film (standard, as-deposited) is reported to have a distribution of crystalline clusters of different sizes22 schematically represented in Fig. 3e and f. These are the potential nuclei for secondary nucleation, of which only clusters larger than the critical cluster size, in this case (Fig. 3e), nucleate, that is, start growing to form larger crystals. So far, we have discussed how clusters larger than the critical cluster size survive and grow, consuming the amorphous material in the film. In addition, Ostwald ripening is likely to take place at later stages of the growth process. Here, clusters that were smaller than the critical cluster size and could not grow are consumed to enable the further growth of those that surpassed the critical cluster size18, 23. Under illumination, we posit that ΔG* and N* are lower and this facilitates more nucleation. We propose that the surface traps in the PbI film are populated with photo-generated carriers, most probably holes (as discussed later) and thereby increase the surface charge. As a response, to compensate for the positive charge on the PbI surface, I− ions in the MAI solution would migrate to the interface to form the outer Helmholtz plane (Fig. 3c). According to equation (3)20, 21, an increase in charge density at the interface decreases the surface tension below the value observed in the dark. This lowers the critical free energy of nucleation and the critical nucleus size such that and (equations (1)19 and (2)19), and smaller crystalline clusters in the PbI film surpass and grow (Fig. 3f). The higher the light intensity, the higher the number of charge carriers trapped at the surface and the lower the surface tension. Based on the above discussion, this gives a higher nucleation density under high light intensities, as observed in Fig. 2b, where the nucleation density scales logarithmically with light intensity. This dependence might be rationalized by the fact that the trapped capacitive charge increases linearly with photo-voltage, which scales logarithmically with light intensity24 (Extended Data Fig. 3). To identify whether the surface traps in the PbI films are for electrons or holes, we conducted additional photo-electrochemical experiments (Extended Data Fig. 5, details in Supplementary Information) and determined that photo-generated holes are the carrier type instrumental in the light-activated nucleation. We considered the possibility of an alternative mechanism taking place, namely photo-redox25 (that is, oxidation reactions involving the photo-generated holes), but we ruled it out using control experiments (detailed discussion in Supplementary Information). To demonstrate the practical applicability of the ability of light to tune the perovskite morphology (the ‘light effect’), we fabricated photovoltaic devices under three conditions: in the dark, and under light intensities of 0.1 Sun and 1 Sun (details in Methods). The solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices was found to increase from an average value of 5.9% to 12.4% (13.7% for the best-performing cell for 1 Sun) when the light intensity during dipping in MAI solution was increased from the dark to 1 Sun. Statistical analysis of photovoltaic data are presented in Extended Data Fig. 6 (average values and hysteresis data are given in Extended Data Table 1). In the case when the films were dipped into MAI solution under a light intensity of 1 Sun, smaller crystals that give superior surface coverage and thereby more homogeneity are observed (Extended Data Fig. 7; XRD spectra also shown). This allows better absorption of incident light, improving the photocurrent density, as reflected in the incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) (Extended Data Fig. 7). In the work reported above, we considered film formation by sequential deposition. We also investigated the effect of illumination on film formation using the anti-solvent method, which is the route employed in the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells1, 26. In this method, a single precursor solution containing multiple metal and organic halides, the two components needed for perovskite formation, is used. It is spin-coated onto the substrate and then an anti-solvent (a solvent in which the perovskite is insoluble) is dripped on top to aid with perovskite formation, before the final step of heating the sample. CH NH PbI solar cells made in the dark using the anti-solvent method have higher PCE values (average of 16.9%, obtaining 18.4% for the best-performing cell) than those prepared under 1 Sun illumination (average of 13.9%) (statistical analysis shown in Extended Data Fig. 6, average values and hysteresis data in Extended Data Table 1, IPCE spectra in Extended Data Fig. 8). In contrast to the sequential deposition method, surface coverage is not an issue for the anti-solvent method. SEM and CLSM images confirm that excellent surface coverage is obtained for CH NH PbI perovskite films made using the anti-solvent method, both in the dark (Fig. 4a) and under 1 Sun illumination (Fig. 4b). However, the large number of crystals obtained under illumination (Fig. 4b) in the anti-solvent method introduces more grain boundaries to the film, which are detrimental to solar-cell performance27. Although the increase of crystal density obtained by preparing films under illumination in the anti-solvent method (Fig. 4) is similar to the observation made for sequential deposition (Fig. 2), the mechanism of perovskite formation in the former method is more complex due to the various intermediates formed during processing8. Reports suggest that clusters of lead halides crystallize in the perovskite precursor solution and represent the first step towards perovskite formation28. We posit that the lead halide crystallization is influenced by illumination in a manner analogous to our findings for sequential deposition. In the anti-solvent method, perovskites of progressively increasing complexity, such as the double-1, triple-29 and quadruple-cation26 compositions, which incorporate multiple metal and organic halides, have been developed to improve device performance. These mixed compositions are composed mainly of formamidinium ions (HC(NH ) +), which replace a large fraction of the methylammonium ions (CH NH +) in the perovskite. The light effect prevails robustly even in these predominantly formamidinium-based1, 26, 29 perovskites (SEM images in Extended Data Fig. 9). For the Rb-incorporated-quadruple-cation composition26, we observe superior performance of cells made in the dark (average PCE of 19.2%, best-performing cell PCE of 20.7%) compared to those made under illumination of 1 Sun (average PCE of 12.4%) (statistical analysis shown in Extended Data Fig. 6, average values and hysteresis data in Extended Data Table 1, IPCE spectra in Extended Data Fig. 8). We therefore find that dark conditions are advantageous in the anti-solvent method, in contrast to the sequential deposition method, in which illumination is advantageous.


Nonfullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs) are fabricated with a perylene monoimide-based n-type wide-bandgap organic semiconductor PMI-F-PMI as an acceptor and a bithienyl-benzodithiophene-based wide-bandgap copolymer PTZ1 as a donor. The PSCs based on PTZ1:PMI-F-PMI (2:1, w/w) with the treatment of a mixed solvent additive of 0.5% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 0.5% diphenyl ether demonstrate a very high open-circuit voltage (V ) of 1.3 V with a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6%. The high V of the PSCs is a result of the high-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of −3.42 eV of the PMI-F-PMI acceptor and the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of −5.31 eV of the polymer donor. Very interestingly, the exciton dissociation efficiency in the active layer is quite high, even though the LUMO and HOMO energy differences between the donor and acceptor materials are as small as ≈0.08 and 0.19 eV, respectively. The PCE of 6% is the highest for the PSCs with a V as high as 1.3 V. The results indicate that the active layer based on PTZ1/PMI-F-PMI can be used as the front layer in tandem PSCs for achieving high V over 2 V.


News Article | February 16, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION IN THE UNITED STATES OR OVER UNITED STATES WIRE SERVICES Petrocapita Income Trust (CSE:PCE.UN)(CSE:PCE.UN.CN) ("Petrocapita" or the "Trust") announces that it has closed a Purchase and Sale Agreement ("PSA") on February 13, 2017 for 10 wells and associated production equipment in the Kitscoty area of Alberta from Twin Butte Energy Ltd. ("Twin Butte") through Twin Butte's Receiver Manager, FTI Consulting Canada Inc. ("FTI") for $21,825.29 (plus or minus any adjustments pursuant to the PSA post-closing). The Trust estimates future abandonment and reclamation obligations associated with these assets of approximately $485,000. The effective date of the transaction is December 1, 2016. This acquisition compliments the Trust's original 9 wells and associated production equipment, a water disposal facility, and 0.8 km of flowlines and 7 wells with associated production equipment from Twin Butte in April 2015; and the acquisition of 3 wells with associated production equipment from Sahara Energy Ltd. in September 2016, all completed in the same Mannville pool with a cumulative recovery to date of less than 5%. With a 100% interest in 29 wells and a central disposal facility, the Trust believes it is positioned to substantially improve recovery and production in the area. Details related to the Trust's reserves and facilities valuations and secured convertible debenture closings to date related to the acquisition and development capital have been filed with the Canadian Securities Exchange (www.theCSE.com). Petrocapita Income Trust is a Specified Investment Flow Through trust developing and acquiring heavy oil production and infrastructure assets in the Lloydminster area of east central Alberta and west central Saskatchewan through its wholly owned subsidiary, Petrocapita Oil and Gas LP. Petrocapita owns or has interest in 445 gross (426.3 net) oil wells, 89 gross (20 net) gas wells, 19 produced water disposal facilities, 3 custom oil processing facilities, 3 natural gas compressor stations, 72.75 km in pipelines, oilwell service rigs, fluid haul tractors and trailers, motor graders, and wellsite processing equipment. It is seeking accretive opportunities to acquire both oil production and complimentary midstream assets during a cyclical low in the oil and gas markets. This news release contains certain forward-looking information as defined under applicable securities legislation. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, with respect to activities, circumstances, events, outcomes and other matters that Petrocapita forecasts, plans, projects, estimates, expects, believes, assumes or anticipates (and other similar expressions) will, should or may occur in the future, are considered forward-looking information. In particular, forward-looking information contained in this news release includes, but is not limited to, information and statements concerning the magnitude of abandonment and reclamation obligations associated with the acquired assets, and the ability of the Trust to improve recovery and production from its assets in the Kitscoty area of Alberta. The forward-looking information provided in this news release is based on management's current beliefs, expectations and assumptions, based on currently available information as to future events (including the outcome and timing thereof). Petrocapita cautions that assumptions have been made regarding the magnitude of abandonment and reclamation obligations associated with the acquired assets, and the ability of the Trust to improve recovery and production from its assets in the Kitscoty area of Alberta, all of which are subject to all of the risks and uncertainties normally incident to the development, production, reclamation and abandonment of oil and gas assets. These risks include, but are not limited to: unanticipated operational, development and abandonment/reclamation issues; general economic, market and business conditions; the loss of key personnel; the failure to realize the benefits of acquisitions made; unforeseen liabilities and obligations; adverse regulatory, royalty or tax changes; and other risks as described in documents and reports that Petrocapita files with the securities commissions or similar authorities in applicable Canadian jurisdictions on the System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval (SEDAR). Any of these factors could cause Petrocapita's actual results and plans to differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking information. Forward-looking information is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those mentioned above, that could cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations set forth in the forward-looking information. Forward-looking information is not a guarantee of future performance or an assurance that our current estimates, assumptions and projections are valid. All forward-looking information speaks only as of the date of this news release, and Petrocapita assumes no obligation to, and expressly disclaims any obligation to, update or revise any forward-looking information, except as required by law. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking information. You are encouraged to closely consider the additional disclosures and risk factors contained in Petrocapita's periodic filings on SEDAR (www.sedar.com) that discuss in further detail the factors that could cause future results to be different than contemplated in this news release.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: onlinelibrary.wiley.com

Organometal halide perovskite materials have become a superstar in the photovoltaic (PV) field because of their advantageous properties, which boost the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) from about 3.8% to above 22% in just seven years. Most importantly, such promising achievement is mainly based on its low-cost and solution-processed fabrication technique. One of the most promising and famous approaches to fabricating perovskite is a two-step sequential deposition method because precursor (e.g., PbI ) deposition is controllable, versatile, and flexible. Due to tremendous efforts, great progress has been achieved on the two-step sequential deposition method, which helps to promote the development of PSCs. Herein, the progresses on the two-step sequential deposition method of perovskite layers is reviewed thoroughly. At first, the reaction process and principle is introduced and discussed. Then, the research on the deposition techniques, structures, and compositions of precursors (the first step) is presented. Subsequently, the developments on the conversion techniques, conversion solutions, and growth of large crystals at the second step are introduced. Finally, four important issues on the two-step sequential deposition method will be stated, accompanied with proposed solutions.

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