West Lafayette, IN, United States

PC Krause and Associates, Inc.

www.pcka.com
West Lafayette, IN, United States
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Patent
PC Krause, Associates, Inc. and The University Of Texas System | Date: 2015-01-20

The present invention includes a variable emissivity metamaterial comprising a substrate and one or more arrays of nanostructured objects deposited on the substrate, wherein the objects comprise a material that has near-IR reflectivity and near-IR absorptivity and the one or more arrays are positioned between 5 and 750 nM from the substrate.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 125.00K | Year: 2016

PC Krause and Associates is partnering with Purdue University, EleQuant, and GridQuant to create a hybrid modeling capability. The combination of PCKA?s extensive dynamic modeling experience, Purdue?s work in electromechanical systems analysis, and GridQuant and Elequant?s development of the HELM algorithm uniquely positions the team to create this technology. HELM is a novel algorithm that solves the powerflow equations of electric power systems using a direct, constructive procedure. It was originally derived for terrestrial power grids and is now being applied to dc spacecraft power systems. The Phase I effort will focus on three technical objectives. The first is to provide a formal definition of the mathematical framework for the hybrid modeling capability. The second objective is to define a software architecture for its implementation. Lastly, the third objective is to demonstrate the capability on an aircraft electrical propulsion system. The test system is anticipated to be a variable-voltage/variable-frequency ac electrical propulsion system that PCKA is currently investigating with NASA as part of a Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) effort. Another alternative is the Hybrid Gas Electric Propulsion (HGEP) Project?s NASA Electric Aircraft Testbed (NEAT) system, which PCKA is also currently modeling. Some potential applications for this modeling technique include some of these applications include 1) efficient contingency analysis, 2) model-based control, 3) system identification and monitoring, and 4) analysis of pulsed loads.


Patent
PC Krause and Associates, Inc. | Date: 2016-06-03

A composite material for passive radiative cooling including a base layer, and at least one emissive layer located adjacent to a surface of the base layer, wherein the at least one emissive layer is affixed to the surface of the base layer via a binding agent.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) developers have limited marketplace options for motor speed controllers. The largest commercial controllers are generally limited to below 12 kW and battery voltages of less than 50 V, Although these are well suited to 800 Class helicopters and Giant scale fixed-wing aircraft, they are not powerful enough for larger UAV development. A few high-power options exist up to 25 kW, though they are substantially heavier with less modularity and selection. To scale up to higher powers, UAV designers are often forced to utilize industrial controllers, which are not packaged for minimal weight and flight capability. To address this need for expanded controller options, this proposal outlines a modular, open architecture motor controller system comprising a main control module, recommended I/O module, and interchangeable power stage modules. In the Phase I effort, PCKA will develop and demonstrate initial modules in a complete motor control solution through a combination of modeling, simulation, analysis, and hardware prototyping. The proposed solution will have open access to the motor control software and logic with a software infrastructure that enables users without embedded systems experience to utilize the system while also allowing advanced users the capability to fully customize the controls. BENEFIT:The proposed modular, open architecture motor controller system offers several benefits to UAV developers, the first commercialization opportunity that this SBIR will target, including: (1) reduced development time and cost due to the availability of a common control platform with complete and open control software examples, (2) better opportunities to optimize the platform performance and capabilities due to the expanded range of current / voltage options as well as the ability to tailor the needed peripheral communications options to the platform, and (3) the ability to rapidly implement custom control algorithms to meet particular platform or mission needs. In addition to the direct benefits to UAV developers in both the military and commercial markets, there is potential for application with minor adaptation in a wide range of other applications that require motor controllers in the target voltage and current ranges including: (1) terrestrial and marine vehicles, (2) industrial automation, (3) autonomous robotics, and (4) mobile power generation units.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Office of the Secretary of Defense | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2014

The US Army and Marines rely significantly on fossil-fuel based tactical power generation to provide electrical energy to deployed troops in small camps and forward operation bases. These generators are sized to support the expected maximum power but are


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Office of the Secretary of Defense | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2014

The movement to more-electric architectures in airborne systems has drastically altered the dynamics of power flow in the EPS with the addition of numerous high-power electric loads and has increased the complexity of designing the electrical power system (EPS). Such high-power dynamic loads may cause undesirable system performance from both a dynamic-transient and a spectral-content (frequency-domain) perspective. In order to mitigate such undesirable performance, modern EPS designers must develop and apply suitable mitigation strategies, which typically involve energy storage, filtration, and/or advanced control. However, limited tools exist for the quantification of a proposed solutions impact on power quality at the integrated-system level from the dynamic-transient and frequency-domain perspective.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2015

The primary objective of this effort will be the development of a software toolset capable of modeling dynamic two-phase flow systems for controls development and optimization. The toolset will be comprised of a variety of components related to two-phase flow systems with user interfaces to parameterize the component models and a variety of supporting tools for operating the models and analyzing results. The software toolset will then be verified using established physics and mathematics and validated against hardware data. Software documentation will be generated and example models addressing the specific modeling needs of the Navy will be created as part of the toolset delivery.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 950.00K | Year: 2013

The overall objective of this research project is to investigate autonomous control architectures for spacecraft power systems. Such techniques will be critical for deep space missions that face inhospitable environments, unpredictable operating conditions, and communication delays. The distributed nature of agent-based control will also support plug-and-play capabilities for modular power systems. The first main focus of the Phase II effort is to expand and refine the International Space Station (ISS) model library created in the Phase I. This will enable advanced energy management studies by supporting the interconnection of multiple channels. In addition, hardware validation of both component and system models will be pursued. Finally, Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation will be applied to the system models to accelerate simulation speed. The second main focus of the Phase II will be to utilize the simulation environment to investigate agent-based autonomous controls. In particular, the ability of agent-based controls to perform in scenarios that stress conventional controls will be analyzed. This ability will also be examined when communication constraints (such as sample rates and latencies) and packet loss are present. Lastly, the ISS system model will be integrated with hardware agent emulators setting the stage for hardware experimentation in future efforts.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SMALL BUSINESS PHASE I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2016

The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will be observed through a direct reduction in the energy consumption required by large industrial facilities, commercial buildings, campuses, and homes. Due to reduced cooling demands as a result of carefully designed radiative properties, the sustainability of federal and industry facilities will be significantly improved with the installation of PRC roofing material for building energy management. A complementary function of PRC roofing is found with the potential for enhanced condensation from the ultra-cool surface, presenting the ability to integrate PRC for improved rooftop water harvesting, directly impacting critical water supply issues and the expensive effects of drought on regional agriculture. The market demand for cool roofing materials has exceeded $750M, annually, and is expected to grow with recent energy regulations. PRC roofing material can expect to compete in a growing industry due to non-trivial improvement over state-of-the-art options in commercial cool roofing products and the economic fabrication method identified in the PRC conceptual design stage. Opportunities extend beyond structural thermal management to facilities dedicated to condensation of atmospheric water vapor in isolated regions without access to satisfactory water supplies, and portable use for emergency water harvesting.

The proposed project will provide the critical design, testing, and experimental validation needed to transition PRC technology into the commercial sector. Designs based on electromagnetic and thermal modeling include composite material options capable of providing passive radiative flux of over 100 Watts per square meter of installed material. This passive cooling advantage?relative to current commercial cool roofing materials?is expected to create significant long-term cost-savings and reduction in fossil fuel usage for climate controlled structures. PRC material properties designed to be selective across the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrum offer the opportunity for intelligent thermal management through reflection of visible and near-infrared portions of the radiative spectrum, while emitting strongly in the 8-13 ìm atmospheric transmission window. A primary objective of the SBIR project is to optimize PRC designs considering full spectrum properties with three criteria in mind: thermal efficiency improvement, prototype fabrication, and large batch manufacturing economy. The second primary objective is sub-scale fabrication and spectral characterization of the PRC roofing material. Subsequent demonstration of a functional PRC sample with quantified passive cooling power is key to the goals of attracting licensing clients and/or investments for commercial-grade manufacturing.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2016

The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will be observed through a direct reduction in the energy consumption required by large industrial facilities, commercial buildings, campuses, and homes. Due to reduced cooling demands as a result of carefully designed radiative properties, the sustainability of federal and industry facilities will be significantly improved with the installation of PRC roofing material for building energy management. A complementary function of PRC roofing is found with the potential for enhanced condensation from the ultra-cool surface, presenting the ability to integrate PRC for improved rooftop water harvesting, directly impacting critical water supply issues and the expensive effects of drought on regional agriculture. The market demand for cool roofing materials has exceeded $750M, annually, and is expected to grow with recent energy regulations. PRC roofing material can expect to compete in a growing industry due to non-trivial improvement over state-of-the-art options in commercial cool roofing products and the economic fabrication method identified in the PRC conceptual design stage. Opportunities extend beyond structural thermal management to facilities dedicated to condensation of atmospheric water vapor in isolated regions without access to satisfactory water supplies, and portable use for emergency water harvesting. The proposed project will provide the critical design, testing, and experimental validation needed to transition PRC technology into the commercial sector. Designs based on electromagnetic and thermal modeling include composite material options capable of providing passive radiative flux of over 100 Watts per square meter of installed material. This passive cooling advantage?relative to current commercial cool roofing materials?is expected to create significant long-term cost-savings and reduction in fossil fuel usage for climate controlled structures. PRC material properties designed to be selective across the ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrum offer the opportunity for intelligent thermal management through reflection of visible and near-infrared portions of the radiative spectrum, while emitting strongly in the 8-13 ìm atmospheric transmission window. A primary objective of the SBIR project is to optimize PRC designs considering full spectrum properties with three criteria in mind: thermal efficiency improvement, prototype fabrication, and large batch manufacturing economy. The second primary objective is sub-scale fabrication and spectral characterization of the PRC roofing material. Subsequent demonstration of a functional PRC sample with quantified passive cooling power is key to the goals of attracting licensing clients and/or investments for commercial-grade manufacturing.

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