Amrhein M.,PC Krause and Associates, Inc. |
Krein P.T.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion | Year: 2010
Developments in power electronics technology, materials, and changing application requirements are driving advances in electric machines. Limitations of standard motor design, particularly for induction machines, restrict performance capabilities in drive applications. Current computer-aided design tools are inadequate to overcome these limitations. Lumped-parameter and finite-element models have limited accuracy and heavy computational effort, respectively. Magnetic equivalent circuits (MEC) avoid these limitations. This paper presents an induction machine MEC model geared toward design and based on a 3-D MEC framework introduced in previous work. A matrix formulation suitable for computation is described. Details of mesh generation for the MEC approach are provided. Force and performance estimation are discussed. Simulations based on this approach are able to track dynamic effects, such as rotor slot torque ripple contributions. Comparisons are made to a 500 W purpose-built machine. Results from lumped-parameter and finite-element models and measurements indicate that MECs, corrected for local saturation, are a promising option for design tools. © 2010 IEEE. Source
Bash M.L.,PC Krause and Associates, Inc. |
Pekarek S.D.,Purdue University
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion | Year: 2011
In recent years, population-based methods (evolutionary algorithms, particle swarm methods, etc.) have emerged as an effective tool for component and system design. Although relatively straightforward to apply, to capitalize on their potential, one must be able to explore a large design space. Herein, a magnetic equivalent circuit model is described to enable large-design-space exploration of salient-pole wound-rotor synchronous machine drive systems. Specifically, the model has been derived to evaluate machines with an arbitrary number of poles, stator slots (integer slots/pole/phase), winding layout, magnetic material, and a wide range of stator and rotor geometries. In addition, the model and solution technique have been structured to minimize the computational effort. An important attribute of the model is that saturation is handled with relatively few iterations and without the need for a relaxation factor to obtain convergence. © 2011 IEEE. Source
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2012
ABSTRACT: The primary objectives of the proposed effort are to enhance, expand, and validate a variable-fidelity transient thermal management toolset. The toolset will be used to model hardware systems in order to validate the approach. In addition, the modeling capability of the tool will be enhanced and expanded to enable modeling of complex thermal management systems. The toolset is designed in a modular, drag and drop library in Matlab/Simulink. Components are developed with a focus on speed, flexibility, and fidelity. The toolset will be provided to a wide user base to ensure that it meets the needs of the modeling community. Documentation will be provided through html help files integrated directly with the Matlab/Simulink help file system. BENEFIT: As cooling concepts on-board present/future military aircraft continue to advance, the need for dynamic vapor cycle system analysis is apparent. The direct benefit of the Phase II effort will be the development of a validated variable-fidelity transient thermal management toolset capable of analyzing dynamic vapor compression cycles including two-phase flow. The toolset will provide the Air Force and aerospace community with the diverse, robust, and accurate analysis capability needed to investigate present/advanced cooling designs of military aircraft. The transition to industry in the Phase II will set the stage for expansive engineering services and support in the Phase III.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2013
PCKA has developed a dynamic, real-time thermal capacity algorithm and gauge for predicting current and anticipated fuel heat sink capability on a fifth-generation tactical aircraft. Relevant internal and external sources and sinks are tracked with prognostics and adaptive intelligence designed to anticipate future thermal constraints. Net heat transfer, available range, and time until potential thermal constraint are supplied to the pilot in a compact, visual gauge. Prior to this technology development, all mission heat loads were modeled post design to create flight limitations that predict an estimated mission time limit. The effect of dynamic, real-time conditions and deviations were unknown, leading to potential thermal constraints. The ability of the war fighters to determine true mission capability will be greatly enhanced by the successful insertion of PCKA's algorithm and gauge with the ability to accurately predict fuel thermal capacity in flight. Mission capability will be optimized while avoiding thermal constraints.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT:Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) developers have limited marketplace options for motor speed controllers. The largest commercial controllers are generally limited to below 12 kW and battery voltages of less than 50 V, Although these are well suited to 800 Class helicopters and Giant scale fixed-wing aircraft, they are not powerful enough for larger UAV development. A few high-power options exist up to 25 kW, though they are substantially heavier with less modularity and selection. To scale up to higher powers, UAV designers are often forced to utilize industrial controllers, which are not packaged for minimal weight and flight capability. To address this need for expanded controller options, this proposal outlines a modular, open architecture motor controller system comprising a main control module, recommended I/O module, and interchangeable power stage modules. In the Phase I effort, PCKA will develop and demonstrate initial modules in a complete motor control solution through a combination of modeling, simulation, analysis, and hardware prototyping. The proposed solution will have open access to the motor control software and logic with a software infrastructure that enables users without embedded systems experience to utilize the system while also allowing advanced users the capability to fully customize the controls. BENEFIT:The proposed modular, open architecture motor controller system offers several benefits to UAV developers, the first commercialization opportunity that this SBIR will target, including: (1) reduced development time and cost due to the availability of a common control platform with complete and open control software examples, (2) better opportunities to optimize the platform performance and capabilities due to the expanded range of current / voltage options as well as the ability to tailor the needed peripheral communications options to the platform, and (3) the ability to rapidly implement custom control algorithms to meet particular platform or mission needs. In addition to the direct benefits to UAV developers in both the military and commercial markets, there is potential for application with minor adaptation in a wide range of other applications that require motor controllers in the target voltage and current ranges including: (1) terrestrial and marine vehicles, (2) industrial automation, (3) autonomous robotics, and (4) mobile power generation units.