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Yuksek T.,Recep Tayyip Erdogan University | Kurdoglu O.,Artvin Coruh University | Yuksek F.,Pazar Forest Management Directorate
Land Degradation and Development

The effect of visitors' activities and management types on surface soil properties continues to be an issue of concern in protected areas. Little evidence was documented regarding the effects of visitors' activities on surface soil properties in forest and grassland in forest gap in protected areas in Turkey. The research focused on the evaluation of the effect of visitor activities and management types on the surface soil environmental conditions in Kafkasör Protected Area. For this purpose six different land use types were identified and characterized as control (Natural Old Forest), moderately used forestry (MUF), heavily used forestry (HUF), light grazing in glade (LGG), moderately used glade (MUG) and heavily used glade (HUG). Fourteen soil properties (such as field capacity (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP), bulk density, total porosity, soil penetration resistance (SPR), soil organic matter (SOM), etc...) were measured on 96 soil pits at 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil depths in six experimental sites in the study area. According to land use intensity, FC, plant available water (PAW), total porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, cumulative infiltration and SOM decreased significantly while bulk density, PWP and SPR increased significantly in all experimental sites compared to control site. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Yuksek T.,Recep Tayyip Erdogan University | Yuksek F.,Pazar Forest Management Directorate

This study investigated the effects of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), mixed species plantation (MSP) [black locust (R. pseudoacacia L) and stone pine (Pinus pinea L.)] on surface soil properties in eroded clay soils. Three land use types were selected; black locust plantation area (BLP), mixed species plantation (MSP), and adjacent bare fields (control site) (ABA), in a semi-arid region in Artvin, Turkey. The experimental design at each site was a randomized complete block with four replications in each study area. Five disturbed and five undisturbed soil samples were randomly taken at a soil depth of 0-10 and 10-20cm in each plot. At 0 to 10cm soil depth in the BLP and MSP sites, and compared to the control site, field capacity (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP), plant available water (PAW), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), P2O5, Ca were significantly greater, while bulk density (Db) and C:N ratio were significantly lower. SOM, PAW, TN, Ec, Mg and Ksat decreased significantly in both sites (BLP and MSP), while clay increased significantly in MSP, and PWP and Db increased significantly with soil depth in BLP site. As a result: Althought these species didn't showed good growth in the study area black locust plantation (BLP) and mixed species plantation (MSP) had a positive impact on surface soil properties in clay soils in eroded sites. The planting of "black locust" and "black locust+stone pine" can be useful in soil reclamation projects in this type of eroded site in semi-arid regions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Yuksek F.,Pazar Forest Management Directorate | Yuksek T.,Recep Tayyip Erdogan University

Vegetation is one of the key factors affecting soil erosion in semi-arid environments. The evaluation of the influence of Sainfoin on soil erosion can provide important information about soil and water conservation. In this study, the effects of vegetation destruction and vegetation restoration on soil erosion were quantified using data from field runoff plots established in a semi-arid zone in Northeastern Turkey. This study was performed between 2005 (June) and 2009 (January). The experimental design at the site included a randomized complete block with four replicates (a total of 12 experimental plots: 3 treatments. ×. 4 replicates). Each plot was 20-m long. ×. 5-m wide, which is wide enough to minimize edge effects and large enough for downslope rills to develop. The control plot (A) was maintained, bare of vegetation by manual removal of the plant cover and, regular herbicide treatments. In the second plot (B), Sainfoin was seeded in 25. cm wide and 60. cm long rows, at a density of 8.5. g of seeds per square meter in October, 2005 after clearing the existing vegetation. The third plot contained natural vegetation shrub (. Paliurus spina-christi Mill.) and perennial grass (. Cynodon dactylon L., Achillea sp., Astragalus sp.) vegetation (C) that maintained at an approximately 63% coverage (October, 2005) of the soil surface.From 4 randomly selected quadrats (1. m. ×. 1. m) at a vegetation plot, the vegetation cover of all of the plant species was estimated for each cell, and the average vegetation cover for a plot was calculated. The plant height and cover were recorded monthly from March through October in 2006, 2007 and 2008, and the monthly averaged value for each indicator was used in this study.Rainfall was recorded at the same field at 1-min intervals using a tipping-bucket system linked to a data-logger. The erosion plot results presented in this study clearly indicate a decrease in the erosion rates over time. The highest sediment concentration was measured on bare plots (10.4gl-1, 2006), while the lowest sediment concentration was measured on Sainfoin plots (1.76gl-1, 2008). The effective soil conservation ability of Sainfoin differed between seasons and years. In the spring season, when plant cover was 30%, Sainfoin began to exhibit an effective active soil conservation ability. In contrast, when the plant cover was greater than 50%, effective protection was observed in the summer. The results revealed that the plant cover was the main factor reducing surface runoff and sediment production, and that Sainfoin showed a great potential to both reduce erosion and runoff. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Yuksek T.,Recep Tayyip Erdogan University | Tilki F.,Artvin Coruh University | Yuksek F.,Pazar Forest Management Directorate
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis

The effects of various land-use regimes on the aboveground herbaceous biomass yield and soil properties were studied in the semihumid region in Turkey. Field soil samples under the four land-use types (grassland I, grassland II, grassland III, and apple orchard) were collected from the experimental sites. The aboveground herbaceous biomass yield was determined from a single May harvest each year during three growing seasons. General statistical tools were used to analyze soil and aboveground herbaceous biomass data. The results indicated that saturated hydraulic conductivity, total porosity, and lime content were significantly less In soils under the gramine pasture, legume pasture, and apple orchard compared to the control site. Plant-available water, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus were significantly less in soils under grassland II compared to the control site. The general linear model (GLM) indicated that aboveground herbaceous biomass yield was affected by the management type and rain. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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