Košice, Slovakia
Košice, Slovakia

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Csachova S.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University
Geographica Pannonica | Year: 2016

In the first part of the paper the aim is to provide the reader with a theoretical insight into models of government structure at the local level and provide evidence from European countries that underwent reforms during the second half of the 20th century. In the Slovak Republic (Slovakia) the renewal of local self-government in 1990 brought changes to the administrative boundary map with more than 200 municipalities re-established bringing the current number to 2,929 local administrative units. This has resulted in some discussion regarding a reduction in the number of local government units in this country. The second part of the paper is focused on Košice; the second largest city in Slovakia with 234,000 inhabitants. The city is organised at two administrative levels; one covering the whole city, the other covering 22 wards. When compared to cities of a similar size, Košice has been criticised for its high number of city wards and councillors, with the concomitant financial inefficiency it can bring. There has been an ongoing debate on reducing their number since 2010. The paper reports on the search for an administrative structure that would best tailor to the citizens' needs and provide effective management in Košice. It uses traditional methods of qualitative research (historical method, content analysis and synthesis) accompanied by statistical data organised in tables and figures.


El Ansari W.,University of Gloucestershire | Sebena R.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Stock C.,University of Southern Denmark
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2014

We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption (high frequency of drinking, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking, and possible alcohol dependence). We also explored whether personal importance of religious faith as well as healthy lifestyle had any modifying roles in these relationships. During 2007-2008, 3,220 students at seven UK universities completed a questionnaire containing questions on CAGE, frequency alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, modified Beck-Depression Inventory, physical activity and sleep, and importance of religious faith. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed separately for four alcohol consumption indicators, stratified by gender. Controlling for demographic variables, depressive symptoms were positively associated with problem drinking and possible alcohol dependence for both genders. Religiosity was negatively associated with frequency of drinking and heavy episodic drinking among both genders, while healthy lifestyle was not associated with any of the four measures of alcohol consumption among both genders. No evidence suggested that either religiosity or healthy lifestyle modified the relationships between depressive symptoms and any of the four measures of alcohol consumption. This study shows a link between hazardous drinking and mental ill health and suggests religiosity as a protective factor for high alcohol consumption. Promotion of students' mental and spiritual health could have a preventive role in hazardous drinking at universities. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Hofierka J.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Zlocha M.,State Geological Survey of Dionyz Stur
Transactions in GIS | Year: 2012

Estimates of solar radiation distribution in urban areas are often limited by the complexity of urban environments. These limitations arise from spatial structures such as buildings and trees that affect spatial and temporal distributions of solar fluxes over urban surfaces. The traditional solar radiation models implemented in GIS can address this problem only partially. They can be adequately used only for 2-D surfaces such as terrain and rooftops. However, vertical surfaces, such as facades, require a 3-D approach. This study presents a new 3-D solar radiation model for urban areas represented by 3-D city models. The v.sun module implemented in GRASS GIS is based on the existing solar radiation methodology used in the topographic r.sun model with a new capability to process 3-D vector data representing complex urban environments. The calculation procedure is based on the combined vector-voxel approach segmenting the 3-D vector objects to smaller polygon elements according to a voxel data structure of the volume region. The shadowing effects of surrounding objects are considered using a unique shadowing algorithm. The proposed model has been applied to the sample urban area with results showing strong spatial and temporal variations of solar radiation flows over complex urban surfaces. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Kocurova L.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Balogh I.S.,College of Nyíregyháza | Sandrejova J.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Andruch V.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2012

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has in the very short time since its invention in 2006 grabbed the attention of researchers and has become very popular among analytical chemists. Like other analytical methods, however, DLLME also has its drawbacks, which result mainly from requirements related to the extraction solvent and disperser solvent. To overcome these various drawbacks, researchers have recently attempted to use solvents with a density lower than that of water and to perform the extraction without using a disperser solvent and without the need for centrifugation. We offer an overview of what in our opinion are some of the most interesting solutions published recently, those which could possibly expand the applicability of DLLME. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Andruch V.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Kocurova L.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Balogh I.S.,College of Nyíregyháza | Skrlikova J.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2012

Novel miniaturized extraction techniques such as single-drop microextraction (SDME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) are currently receiving a great deal of interest from analytical chemists, as evidenced by the continually growing number of original papers and reviews devoted to these techniques. Yet despite the fact that numerous reviews devoted to SDME and DLLME have already been published, we would like to offer our point of view on the state-of-the-art approaches that enable the coupling of SDME and DLLME with UV-vis spectrophotometric and related detection techniques. Examples of the discussed techniques are given in the tables. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lukacova-Medvid'ova M.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Rusnakova G.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Rusnakova G.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Hundertmark-Zauskova A.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2013

In this paper we study a kinematic splitting algorithm for fluid-structure interaction problems. This algorithm belongs to the class of loosely-coupled fluid-structure interaction schemes. We will present stability analysis for a coupled problem of non-Newtonian shear-dependent fluids in moving domains with viscoelastic boundaries. Fluid flow is described by the conservation laws with nonlinearities in convective and diffusive terms. For simplicity of presentation the structure is modelled by the generalized string equation, but the results presented in the paper may be generalized to more complex structure models. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach is used in order to take into account moving computational domain. Numerical experiments including numerical error analysis and comparison of hemodynamic parameters for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids demonstrate reliability of the proposed scheme. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Talian I.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University | Huebner J.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

The article describes the multifunctionality of a novel black silicon (BS) nanostructured surface covered with a thin layer of noble metal prepared in the a microfluidic channel. It is focused on the separation properties of the BS substrate with direct detection of the separated analytes utilizing surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The same BS substrate is providing the stationary phase and a surface enhancement of the Raman signal that has been measured previously to be around 10. As tested molecules, the common components of explosives 1,3 dinitrobenzene and 2,4 dinitrotoluene were used. The separation of selected molecules was achieved with the dried toluene as a mobile phase in a 25 micrometers deep, 5 mm wide, and 4 cm long microfluidic channel during the 2 min. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


SEM, EDS, TEM, FTIR and UV-vis analysis were used to investigate the biosorption, bioaccumulation and bioreduction of silver by the freshwater green alga Parachlorella kessleri. The dead algal biomass showed high potential for silver removal; 75% of silver was removed within 2 min. Surface sorption was the main mechanism; bioreduction contributed to the biosorption only to a small extent. In the presence of living P. kessleri cells a 68% decrease of silver concentration was observed within 24 h, but subsequently the majority of silver was released back into the solution within the next 14 days. According to UV-vis spectrometry, silver nanoparticles were formed in that time. The nanoparticles produced by the alga exhibited a lower toxicity against algal cells than silver ions at the same silver concentrations. The study demonstrated that living algal cells used a combination of two main mechanisms (sorption and reduction) for silver detoxification in their environment. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Novotny M.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

The Canvas protocol was developed by Harald Vogt [10] and should provide data integrity in Wireless Sensor Networks. However, Dieter Gollmann published [5] an attack on the protocol. This example supports a widespread belief that design of security protocols is notoriously error-prone. Therefore, it is required to use formal methods to analyze their security properties. In the paper we present design and analysis of a generalized Canvas protocol. We consider the fallacy of the Canvas scheme in different models of the attacker and present a solution for correcting the scheme. We discuss a motivation for generalization of the Canvas protocol and introduce a k-generalized version of the scheme for some parameter k ≥ 2. We build a formal model of the k-generalized Canvas protocol in the applied pi-calculus. This model includes a model of the network topology, communication channels, captured nodes, and capabilities of the attacker. In the semantic model of the applied picalculus we specify the data integrity property of the scheme. We prove that the proposed k-generalized Canvas scheme, in the presence of an active adversary, provides data integrity of messages assuming that at least one honest node exists on each path of the length k-1 in the communication graph of a sensor network. Finally, we discuss the usability of the proposed formal model for other WSN security protocols. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2010.


Gallova S.,Pavol Jozef Safarik University
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2015

One important and inconvenient problem is the presence of missing data in effort to achieve a data quality within our problem solving process. We notice the frequent occurrence of missing attributes values in real world data sets. There are some well- known strategies how to deal with missing value features within classification problem. At first, we apply five generally known investigated approaches to missing attribute values. Next, we use improved 6th approach to missing attribute values description and handling.

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