Villigen, Switzerland

Paul Scherrer Institute

www.psi.ch/
Villigen, Switzerland

The Paul Scherrer Institute is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain covering also the ETH Zurich and the EPFL. It was established in 1988 by merging in 1960 established EIR and in 1968 established SIN . Currently, it is based in Villigen and Würenlingen.The PSI is a multi-disciplinary research centre for natural science and technology. In national and international collaboration with universities, other research institutes and industry, PSI is active in solid state physics, materials science, elementary particle physics, life science, nuclear and non-nuclear energy research, and energy-related ecology.It is the largest Swiss national research institute with about 1,400 members of staff, and is the only one of its kind in Switzerland.PSI is a User Laboratory and runs several particle accelerators. The 590MeV cyclotron, with its 72MeV companion pre-accelerator, is one of them. As of 2011, it delivers up to 2.2mA proton beam, which is the world record for such proton cyclotrons. It drives the spallation neutron source complex. The Swiss Light Source , built in 2001, is a synchrotron light source with a 2.4GeV electron storage ring. It is one of the world's best with respect to electron beam brilliance and stability. An X-ray free-electron laser called SwissFEL is currently under construction and is slated to begin operation in 2016.The proton accelerators are also used for the proton therapy program. Wikipedia.


Time filter

Source Type

Patent
Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2017-05-10

It is an objective of the present invention to provide a method for selectively processing the surface of a semiconductor substrate. This objective is achieved according to the present invention by a method to selectively process a surface of a substrate, preferably a semiconductor substrate, comprising the steps of:a) providing a substrate having an faceted surface defining sections with different surface orientation;b) applying a directional beam to the faceted surface thereby recording higher intensities of the directional beam into regions being oriented more perpendicular to the directional beam as compared to respective other sections being oriented less perpendicular to the directional beam;c) further selectively processing of the sections having received the higher intensities and/or of the section having received the lower intensities. This method enables the generation of self-aligned sections which depend on the local morphology of the faceted surface. The term faceted surface refers to surfaces having well separated regions with different surface orientations with respect to the averaged surface of the substrate. This term also includes for example undulated surfaces. The differences of the angles between the vector normal of the surface of the substrate and the incident beam will deliver different average beam exposurein the different sections of the faceted surface.


The present invention provides a movable gantry (2) for delivery of a particle beam using beam scanning technique, for example for the cancer treatment in human tissue; comprising:a) an inlet section (6) for an accelerated particle beam comprising a number of quadrupole magnets ;b) a first bending section (8) and optionally a second bending section (12) comprising a number of dipole and quadrupole magnets and optionally further magnets for beam correction;c) a transfer section comprising a number of quadrupole magnets and optionally further magnets for beam correction and a degrader (D);d) a last beam bending section (16) comprising a number of separate and/or combined dipole/quadrupole/higher order multipole magnets forming an achromatic section, wherein all magnets of this achromatic last bending section (16) are located downstream of the degrader (D); any dispersion in this achromatic last bending section (16) is suppressed so that it will have a momentum acceptance of more than 5%;e) a scanning section (15) comprising two separate or one combined fast deflection magnets (K1, K2) that deflect the beam at the iso-center in a direction perpendicular to the beam direction to perform lateral scanning; andf) a beam nozzle section (18) comprising a beam nozzle and optionally beam handling equipment, such as further beam degrading or modifying elements and/or beam quality related beam verifying elements. This combination of a degrader mounted in the gantry and a design of the gantrys beam transport magnets with a large momentum acceptance creates a possibility to increase the energy acceptance of the last bending section in the gantry and implement new dose application techniques, such as a fast change of proton energy at the patient without changing the magnetic field of the last bending section in the gantry.


Patent
Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2016-10-27

A laser ablation cell (1) comprises a flow channel (11) having an essentially constant cross-sectional area so as to ensure a strictly laminar flow in the flow channel. A sample chamber (21) is provided adjacent to a lateral opening (14) of the flow channel. A laser beam (41) enters the sample chamber (21) through a lateral window (16) and impinges on a surface (24) of a sample (23) to ablate material from the sample. The sample may be positioned in such a distance from the flow channel that the laser-generated aerosol mass distribution has its center within the flow channel. This leads to short aerosol washout times. The laser ablation cell is particularly well suited for aerosol generation in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), including imaging applications.


Patent
Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2017-04-05

It is the objective of the present invention to provide a waveguide that has excellent optical properties and can be easily produced. This objective is achieved according to the present invention by a photonic nanowires based waveguide, comprising: a) a plurality of nanowires; each nanowire having a ridge shape; b) said nanowires being supported by a support substrate or partially or totally free standing; c) said support substrate further supporting interfacing waveguides disposed on both sides of said plurality of nanowires. The special concept of present invention allows to aloign a number of ridge-shaped nanowire that enables to control the amount of light being outside the solid waveguide in the evanescence field. Further, the design is compatible with solid waveguides and offers the possibility to confine (guide the light) within a multiple waveguide arrangement.


It is an objective of the present invention to provide a mechanomechanical device improving the quality of the analytical measurements done by diffraction or other analytical techniques (e.g. spectroscopic ones) during ball milling processes. This objective is achieved according to the present invention by a mechanochemical device (2) for mixing and/or reacting at least one chemical compound to at least one reaction product (4), comprising:a) a grinding container (6) having a milling chamber (7), milling elements (8) and at least one probing chamber (10) wherein the at least one probing chamber (10) is realized as a recess volume (12) of said milling chamber (7) and wherein the recess volume (12) has a cross-sectional opening towards the milling chamber (7) that is smaller than the dimensions of the milling elements (8) preventing the milling elements (8) from entering into the recess volume (12); andb) a motor (14, 16) coupled to the grinding container (6) in order to rotate the grinding container (6) thereby bringing the recess volume (12) at least temporarily into a position allowing a gravitation driven release of the at least one compound and/or the at least one reaction product (4) that entered the recess volume (12) back into the milling chamber. This device enables measurements done in a small part called probe chamber being specifically designed for analytical techniques. The features of the present invention make sure that the reaction product and/or its precursors (the ration strongly depends on the progress of the reaction of the precursors) is quasi-permanently present in the probe chamber which allows for an quasi-permanent analysis on the progress/evolution of the desired mechanochemical-induced reaction.


Patent
ETH Zurich and Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2017-06-28

The invention presents a scheme overcoming power and energy limitations of state-of-the-art multi-pass laser oscillator. Multi-pass oscillators designed according to this disclosure show improved stability properties for variations of the active medium thermal lens enabling scalability to an arbitrary number of passes though the active medium. This invention applies in particular to high-average power, high-energy mode-locked lasers and to thin-disk lasers. The invention utilizes the soft aperture effect occurring in pumped active media to realize a multi-pass oscillator whose range of stability for variations of the thermal lens in the active medium is similar to the stability achievable with a single pass oscillator. The roundtrip in such a multi-pass oscillator is given by a sequence of segments with identical layout. The ray transfer matrix of this segment describes a stable optical ring resonator.


The present invention discloses a method and a system (2) for resolving a crystal structure of a crystal (4) at atomic resolution by collecting X-ray diffraction images, comprising:a) ejecting a droplet (8) of fluid comprising single or multiple of crystal (4) into an ultrasonic acoustic levitator (6);b) levitating said droplet (8) of fluid comprising said crystal (4) in an ultrasonic acoustic levitator (6);b) monitoring the position and the spinning of the droplet (8) with a visualization apparatus;c) applying X-ray (20) to said crystal (4), said X-ray (20) stemming from an X-ray source (34); andd) detecting the X-ray diffraction images (24) from the said crystal (4) irradiated by the said X-ray source (34) by an X-ray detector (36) being capable to capture two dimensional diffraction patterns.


Patent
Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2017-05-31

It is the objective of the present invention to provide a degrader that has excellent degrading capabilities with, for the same energy loss in the degrader, a lower emittance increase as currently used materials, without generating a strong neutron flux and without having severe toxic characteristics. This objective is achieved according to the present invention by a degrader (2) for use in the field of the application of a particle beam (6), comprising degrading active material wherein the degrading active material comprises Boron Carbide B_(4)C. This degrader has an amount of multiple scattering that is lower than in graphite for the same energy loss. The use of B_(4)C increases the transmission by at typically 35% for the beam degradation to low energies, which is a significant and useful amount of beam intensity increase in particle therapy. The B_(4)C-material does not become more radio-active than graphite, so that there will be no additional problems at service activities. Further, B_(4)C as degrading active material does not have severe toxic properties.


The present invention discloses a method of manufacturing gas diffusion layers (GDL) with a defined pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The method to produce electrically conductive porous materials with distributed wettability comprises the steps of: a) Coating the external and internal surfaces of a porous base material made of carbon fiber or Titanium with Fluoroethylene-Propylene (FEP) and/or perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) and/or Ethylene-Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) or any other hydrophobic polymer; b) Exposing the coated material to irradiation through a blocking mask such that only parts of the coated porous material are exposed; c) Immersing the previously exposed material in a monomer solution and heating to a temperature higher than 45C, resulting in the graft co-polymerization of monomers on the FEP layer.


In this application, a comprehensive maps at single amino acid resolution of the residues stabilising the Gi1subunit in nucleotide-and receptor-bound states is given. These maps were generated by measuring the effects of alanine mutations on the stability of Gi1and of the rhodopsin-Gi1complex. Using these data, stabilization clusters in the GTPase and helical domains have been identified responsible for structural integrity and the conformational changes associated with activation. In activation cluster I, helices 1 and 5 pack against strands 1-3 to stabilize the nucleotide-bound states. In the receptor-bound state, these interactions are replaced by interactions between 5 and strands 4-6.The key residues in this cluster are Y320, crucial for the stabilisation of the receptor-bound state, and F336, which stabilises nucleotide-bound states. Destabilisation of helix 1, caused by rearrangement of this activation cluster, leads to the weakening of the inter-domain interface and release of GDP. The present application discloses in detail mutant ligands of the human G protein alpha-subunit Gi1-, wherein at least one amino acid residue has been replaced with alanine if the at least one amino acid residue is a non-alanine residue,or at least one amino acid residue has been replace with glycine if the at least one amino acid residue is alanine and wherein the at least one amino acid residue is comprised in a first group containing of the amino acid residues with position R32A, K54A, I55A, I56A, H57A, R176A, E245A, Y296A, T327A, N331A, V332A and D350A or is comprised in a second group containing G42A, A59G, T177A, D200A, A226G, E297A, A300G and F334A or is comprised in a third group containing V50A, A59G, R178A 30 and K180A.

Loading Paul Scherrer Institute collaborators
Loading Paul Scherrer Institute collaborators