Villigen, Switzerland
Villigen, Switzerland

The Paul Scherrer Institute is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain covering also the ETH Zurich and the EPFL. It was established in 1988 by merging in 1960 established EIR and in 1968 established SIN . Currently, it is based in Villigen and Würenlingen.The PSI is a multi-disciplinary research centre for natural science and technology. In national and international collaboration with universities, other research institutes and industry, PSI is active in solid state physics, materials science, elementary particle physics, life science, nuclear and non-nuclear energy research, and energy-related ecology.It is the largest Swiss national research institute with about 1,400 members of staff, and is the only one of its kind in Switzerland.PSI is a User Laboratory and runs several particle accelerators. The 590MeV cyclotron, with its 72MeV companion pre-accelerator, is one of them. As of 2011, it delivers up to 2.2mA proton beam, which is the world record for such proton cyclotrons. It drives the spallation neutron source complex. The Swiss Light Source , built in 2001, is a synchrotron light source with a 2.4GeV electron storage ring. It is one of the world's best with respect to electron beam brilliance and stability. An X-ray free-electron laser called SwissFEL is currently under construction and is slated to begin operation in 2016.The proton accelerators are also used for the proton therapy program. Wikipedia.


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A salt separator separates salts and/or solid materials from a pumpable aqueous fluid mixture under process conditions, which lie in the range of the critical point for the fluid mixture. The salt separator contains a reaction zone in a cavity for transforming the pumpable aqueous fluid mixture into a raw mixture, e.g. a methanation reaction, and a feed opening for the pumpable aqueous fluid mixture to the cavity. The feed opening is realized in a rising pipe that protrudes into the cavity. A first extraction opening is provided for the raw mixture freed of salts and/or solid materials. The first extraction opening is arranged in the upper region of the cavity and a second extraction opening is provided for a brine containing the salt and/or the solid materials. The second extraction opening is arranged in the lower region of the cavity and is located lower down than the feed opening.


The radionuclide ^(43)Sc is produced at commercially significant yields and at specific activities and radionuclidic purities which are suitable for use in radiodiagnostic agents including imaging agents. In a method, a solid target having an isotopically enriched target layer prepared on an inert substrate is positioned in a specially configured target holder and irradiated with a charged-particle beam of protons or deuterons. The beam is generated using an accelerator such as a biomedical cyclotron at energies ranging from 3 to about 22 MeV. The method includes the use of three different nuclear reactions: a) irradiation of enriched ^(43)Ca targets with protons to generate the radionuclide ^(43)Scin the nuclear reaction ^(43)Ca (p,n)^(43)Sc, b) irradiation of enriched ^(42)Ca targets with deuterons to generate the radionuclide ^(43)Sc in the nuclear reaction ^(42)Ca(d,n)^(43)Sc, and c) irradiation of enriched ^(46)Ti targets with protons to generate the radionuclide ^(43)Sc in the nuclear reaction ^(46)Ti (p,a)^(43)Sc.


Patent
Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2015-02-25

Among the existent X-ray phase-contrast modalities, grating interferometry appears as a promising technique for commercial applications, since it is compatible with conventional X-ray tubes. However, since applications such as medical imaging and homeland security demand covering a considerable field of view, the fabrication of challenging and expensive large-area gratings would be needed. A scanning setup is a good solution, because it uses cheaper line detectors instead of large-area 2D detectors and would require smaller gratings. In this setup, the phase-retrieval using the conventional phase-stepping approach would be slow, so having a faster method to record the signals becomes fundamental. To tackle this problem, a scanning-mode grating interferometer configuration is used, in which a grating is tilted to form Moire fringes perpendicular to the grating lines. The sample is then translated along the fringes, so each line detector records a different phase step for each slice of the sample.


A reflective sample, such as a mask, is imaged in an optics system. A radiation source emits a light beam with relatively low coherence. A first focusing element focuses the beam before a mirror reflects the focused beam towards the sample at an incidence angle of between 2 and 25 A pinhole aperture plate upstream of the sample has a first aperture to focus and cut-off the beam diameter to form a more monochromatic beam. The sample is displaced by a mechanism in a direction perpendicular to the normal vector of the sample surface while it reflects the light beam. The reflected beam passes a second aperture in the pinhole aperture plate next to the first aperture on its way to a pixel detector. The second aperture limits the diameter of the reflected beam, thereby adjusting the diameter of the light beam before it reaches the pixel detector.


X-ray scattering imaging can provide complementary information about the unresolved microstructures of a sample. The scattering signal can be accessed with various methods based on coherent illumination, which span from self-imaging to speckle scanning. The directional sensitivity of the existing methods is limited to a few directions on the imaging plane and it requires the scanning of the optical components, or the rotation of either the sample or the imaging setup, if the full range of possible scattering directions is desired. The present invention discloses a new arrangement that allows the simultaneous acquisition of the scattering images in all possible directions in a single shot. This is achieved by a specialized phase grating and means of recording the generated interference fringe with sufficient spatial resolution. The proposed technique decouples the sample dark-field signal with the sample orientation, which can be crucial for medical and industrial applications.


The present invention discloses an X ray detector with single photon measurement capabilities (14), comprising:a) a layer of photosensitive material (4);b) an NxM array of photo-detector diodes (2) arranged in said layer of photosensitive material (4); each of said photo-detector diodes (2) having a bias potential interface (12) and a diode output interface, said bias potential interface (12) of each photo-detector diode (2) being connected to a bias potential (V_(bias));c) an NxM array of high gain, low noise readout unit cells (RO), one readout unit cell (RO) for each photo-detector diode (2); andd) each readout unit cell (RO) comprising:d1) an input interface (IN) connecting said diode output interface to a high-gain charge-to-voltage amplifying means (34) comprising integration capacitors (Cf1, Cf2, Cf3),d2) said high-gain charge-to-voltage amplifying means (34) having a number of gains and being able to switch between the gains,d3) a comparator and a digital block (30) for monitoring the charge of the integration capacitance and for switching the actual gain to another gain depending from the monitored charge of the integration capacitance. This pixel detector provides the possibility of in pixel intermediate evaluation of an automatic gain switching circuit state to increase the dynamic range of the detector in case of quasi continuous incoming particle flux (quasi continuous flux being defined as a flux changing only on time scales bigger than 1/(frame rate)). The detector according to the present invention exploits the behavior of an automatic gain switching amplifier in case of a quasi-continuous incoming particle flux to extend the dynamic range up to several orders of magnitude.


Patent
Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2017-03-01

It is the objective of the present invention to provide a compact and cost effective light source based on a storage ring that can deliver sufficient power, stability and brightness for metrology methods in the EUV range. This objective is achieved according to the present invention by a compact light source (LS) based on synchrotron technology, comprising:a) a linear accelerator (LA) for electrons;b) a booster ring (BR) designed for top-up injection receiving the accelerated electrons via an injection pathway (SI);c) a storage ring (SR) receiving the accelerated electrons from the booster ring (BR) via top-up injection, keeping in this way the beam intensity stable to less than 5x10^(-3), wherein the electron energy of the electron beam in the storage ring (SR) ranges from 200 to 500 MeV and the current of the electron beam ranges from any lower value to 200 mA; andd) a low gap undulator (UN) comprised in the storage ring (SR); said undulator (UN) having an undulator period of 8 to 24 mm and a length of a large multiple of the undulator period. These measures result in a sufficiently compact source that fits into conventional labs or their maintenance areas and has quite low maintenance requirements and low cost of ownership. The wavelength of the light emitted by the undulator ranges from 5 to 30 nm. The light beam has an extreme stability smaller than 5.10^(-3), a sufficient power in a range larger than 10 mW and a high brightness larger than 10 kW/mm2.str. The parameter space of electron beam energy, undulator period length, number of undulator periods has therefore been optimized to provide the required wavelength and photon flux for metrology.


Patent
Paul Scherrer Institute | Date: 2017-03-08

Since the very first experiments with phase-contrast imaging at synchrotrons, X-ray scientists were quite excited by the potential of this novel approach, as the holy-grail of boosting the contrast of soft and radiation sensitive materials under dose-control seemed to be finally at reach. The features of gratings-based interferometry (GI) are well suited for transferring this exciting technology from the exclusive synchrotrons community to a much wider basin of potential users. Particularly for medical applications, the relation between image contrast and dose has triggered tremendous efforts in the development of novel imaging devices. Such systems essentially operate near to the photon-starvation limit to cope with the fundamental dilemma of providing sufficient diagnostic sensitivity and sensibility at an acceptable, as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) risk for the patient. If a new imaging modality were to be implemented in a clinical environment, it is needless to say that it has to be compliant with the very strict regulatory directives. The present invention proposes a system based exclusively on X-ray phase shifting components, i.e. without the use of an absorption grating, or a mask or a high-resolution detector. The novel approach is applicable at all imaging relevant energies and can be easily scalable to large field of views. The invention solves in one shot most the major limitations so far which were preventing a broad dissemination of phase contrast X-ray imaging on conventional sources.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERA-NET-Cofund | Phase: SC5-15-2015 | Award Amount: 52.36M | Year: 2016

In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of environmental monitoring and Earth observation have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers for supporting key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERA-PLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation to Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and the Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen the European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET will reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart cities and Resilient societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge in different domain of Earth Observation.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRAINNOV-02-2016 | Award Amount: 2.28M | Year: 2017

Development and construction of accelerator based scientific Research Infrastructures are going through a deep paradigm change because of the need for large scale Technological Infrastructures at the forefront of technology to master the key accelerator and magnet science and technology needed for several fields. Indeed, because of the high technological level and of the increased size and time scale of projects, development and construction require more and more sophisticated R&D platforms on key accelerator and magnet technologies, large-scale facilities for their assembly, integration and verification, large concentrations of dedicated skilled personnel and long term relationships between laboratories and industry. In response to those challenges, a few large platforms specialized in interdisciplinary technologies and for applications of direct benefit to society are emerging. The emerging Technological Infrastructure is aiming at creating an efficient integrated ecosystem among laboratories focussed on R&D, with a long term vision for the technological needs of future RIs and industry, including SME, motivated by the innovative environment and the market created by the realisation of the technological needs of several RIs. With a timeline of 30 months, involving 10 Consortium partners, the AMICI proposal will ensure that A) a stronger and optimised integration model between the large existing technological infrastructures is developed and agreed upon, B) that this integrated ecosystem is attracting industries and fostering innovation based on accelerator and SC magnets cutting-edge developments, C) that strategy and roadmaps are clearly defined and understood to strongly position European industries and SMEs on the market of the construction of new Research Infrastructures worldwide, and D) that potential societal applications are identified and disseminated to the relevant partners of this ecosystem.

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