Assessment and management of adult cancer pain: A systematic review and synthesis of recent qualitative studies aimed at developing insights for managing barriers and optimizing facilitators within a comprehensive framework of patient care
Luckett T.,Improving Palliative Care Through Clinical Trials ImPaCCT |
Luckett T.,University of Technology, Sydney |
Luckett T.,University of New South Wales |
Davidson P.M.,Improving Palliative Care Through Clinical Trials ImPaCCT |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management | Year: 2013
Context: Cancer pain is a common, burdensome problem, which is not well managed despite evidence-based guidelines. Objectives: To develop insights for managing barriers and optimizing facilitators to adult cancer pain assessment and management within a comprehensive framework of patient care. Methods: We undertook a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies. Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts were searched from May 20 to 26, 2011. To be included, the articles had to be published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000; written in English; and report original qualitative studies on the perspectives of patients, their significant others, or health care providers. Article quality was rated using the checklist of Kitto et al. Thematic synthesis followed a three-stage approach using Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre-Reviewer 4 software: 1) free line-by-line coding of "Results," 2) organization into "descriptive" themes, and 3) development of "analytical" themes informative to our objective. At Stage 3, a conceptual framework was selected from the peer-reviewed literature according to prima facie "fit" for descriptive themes. Results: Of 659 articles screened, 70 met the criteria, reporting 65 studies with 48 patient, 19 caregiver, and 21 health care provider samples. Authors rarely reported reflexivity or negative cases. Mead and Bower's model of patient-centered care accommodated 85% of the descriptive themes; 12% more related to the caregiver and service/system factors. Three themes could not be accommodated. Conclusion: Findings highlight the need to integrate patient/family education within improved communication, individualize care, use more nonpharmacological strategies, empower patients/families to self-manage pain, and reorganize multidisciplinary roles around patient-centered care and outcomes. These conclusions require validation via consensus and intervention trials. © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thewes B.,University of Sydney |
Bell M.L.,University of Sydney |
Butow P.,University of Sydney |
Beith J.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2013
Background Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common problem amongst survivors. Past research has shown that young women with breast cancer are particularly vulnerable to FCR, yet few previous studies have specifically examined FCR in this subgroup. Aims The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between FCR, psychological morbidity and social factors. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between clinical levels of FCR and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and hypochondriasis. Method Two hundred eighteen breast cancer survivors (aged 18-45 years at diagnosis) diagnosed at least 1 year prior were recruited through seven metropolitan oncology clinics and two breast cancer consumer groups. Participants completed a web-based questionnaire, which assessed FCR, psychological functioning, generalised anxiety, hypochondriasis and items exploring past cancer-related experiences, attitudes to future childbearing, social support and correlates were identified using linear regression. Results Psychological morbidity scales measuring anxiety and psychological functioning and stressful life events were significantly associated with FCR in adjusted and unadjusted models (p < 0.0001). Past cancer experiences, children, social support and attitudes to childrearing were not associated with FCR. Among those with clinical levels of FCR (n = 152), 43% met screening criteria for hypochondriasis, and 36% met screening criteria for GAD. Conclusions This study shows psychological morbidity is associated with FCR, but the majority of women with high levels of FCR do not also meet the criteria for a clinical level of GAD or hypochondriasis. Understanding the factors that make young women vulnerable to FCR is important to help guide the development of FCR-specific interventions for this subgroup. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zdenkowski N.,Australia and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group |
Zdenkowski N.,University of Newcastle |
Forbes J.F.,Australia and New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group |
Forbes J.F.,University of Newcastle |
And 19 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2016
Background: Despite the effectiveness of adjuvant endocrine therapy in preventing breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer events continue at a high rate for at least 10 years after completion of therapy. Patients and methods: This randomised open label phase III trial recruited postmenopausal women from 29 Australian and New Zealand sites, with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer, who had completed ≥4 years of endocrine therapy [aromatase inhibitor (AI), tamoxifen, ovarian suppression, or sequential combination] ≥1 year prior, to oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily for 5 years, or observation. Treatment allocation was by central computerised randomisation, stratified by institution, axillary node status and prior endocrine therapy. The primary outcome was invasive breast cancer events (new invasive primary, local, regional or distant recurrence, or contralateral breast cancer), analysed by intention to treat. The secondary outcomes were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival, and safety. Results: Between 16 May 2007 and 14 March 2012, 181 patients were randomised to letrozole and 179 to observation (median age 64.3 years). Endocrine therapy was completed at a median of 2.6 years before randomisation, and 47.5% had tumours of >2 cm and/or node positive. At 3.9 years median follow-up (interquartile range 3.1- 4.8), 2 patients assigned letrozole (1.1%) and 17 patients assigned observation (9.5%) had experienced an invasive breast cancer event (difference 8.4%, 95% confidence interval 3.8% to 13.0%, log-rank test P = 0.0004). Twenty-four patients (13.4%) in the observation and 14 (7.7%) in the letrozole arm experienced a DFS event (log-rank P = 0.067). Adverse events linked to oestrogen depletion, but not serious adverse events, were more common with letrozole. Conclusion: These results should be considered exploratory, but lend weight to emerging data supporting longer duration endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and offer insight into reintroduction of AI therapy. © The Author 2016.