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Cabrils, Spain

Havis N.D.,Scotland's Rural College | Brown J.K.M.,John Innes Center | Clemente G.,Patologia Vegetal | Frei P.,Institute of Plant Production science | And 10 more authors.

Ramularia collo-cygni is the biotic factor responsible for the disease Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Despite having been described over 100 years ago and being considered a minor disease in some countries, the fungus is attracting interest in the scientific community as a result of the increasing number of recorded economically damaging disease epidemics. New reports of disease spread and fungal identification using molecular diagnostics have helped redefine RLS as a global disease. This review describes recent developments in our understanding of the biology and epidemiology of the fungus, outlines advances made in the field of the genetics of both the fungus and host, and summarizes the control strategies currently available. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Luque J.,Patologia Vegetal | Elena G.,Patologia Vegetal | Garcia-Figueres F.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Reyes J.,Oficina Alt Penedes | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research

Background and Aims: Information on the natural infection rates of pruned canes caused by fungal trunk pathogens is scarce. This study aimed to determine the pathogenic mycoflora infecting the pruning wounds in two vineyards in Catalonia, Spain, each with a different level of trunk diseases, and in two pruning seasons. Methods and Results: Vines were pruned in each vineyard in mid-autumn leaving four to six buds. Three months later, pathogens were isolated and identified in 250 pruned canes chosen at random in each vineyard. Vines were then definitively pruned to two buds, and sampling for pathogen isolation and identification was repeated 3 months later. The main fungal pathogens identified in this study were Eutypa lata (0-0.4% of isolations), Neofusicoccum parvum (0-1.2%), Botryosphaeria dothidea (0-1.6%), Phomopsis spp. (0-1.6%), Cryptovalsa ampelina (0-3.2%), Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (0-12.0%) and Diplodia seriata (0.4-68.4%). A strong seasonal effect on pathogen infections was detected for most species, with a higher isolation percentage detected after the late pruning as compared with that of the early pruning. Conclusions: Under the environmental conditions and the geographical location of this study, our results showed that the rate of natural infection of pruning wounds was lower following early pruning (autumn) than following late pruning (winter). Significance of the Study: Early pruning could be used in combination with other control measures, such as chemical and biological wound protectants, to reduce the infections caused by the grapevine trunk pathogens during the pruning season in Catalonia, Spain. The infection risk, however, and potential effects of the early pruning on grape production should be considered in other environments before expanding this recommendation to other grapegrowing regions. © 2013 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc. Source

Elena G.,Patologia Vegetal | Garcia-Figueres F.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Reigada S.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal | Luque J.,Patologia Vegetal
Plant Pathology

Variation of Diplodia seriata, a fungal species associated with botryosphaeria dieback of grapevine, was investigated with respect to its genetic, phenotypic and pathogenic characteristics. The inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique was used to investigate the genetic diversity of 83 isolates of D. seriata. Five ISSR primers were able to provide reproducible and polymorphic DNA fingerprint patterns, thus showing a relevant genetic variability in the species. Analyses of ISSR data by different clustering methods grouped the isolates into two distinct clusters through the Bayesian and DAPC analyses. No relationships between either geographic or host origin of isolates and genetic clusters were observed. Several representative isolates from each genetic cluster were chosen for studying their conidial dimensions, in vitro mycelial growth, vegetative and mating compatibility, and pathogenicity on detached grapevine canes and potted vines. No significant differences in conidial dimensions were detected among the groups. Vegetative compatibility reactions were observed among isolates but this was not related with the genetic clustering. Production of sexual fruiting bodies in vegetative compatible crossings was not observed under the experimental conditions used in the study. All 14 isolates tested for pathogenicity were confirmed to be pathogenic according to the length of the necrotic lesions that they caused and their reisolation frequencies from the infected plant tissues. Differences in the length of necrosis were detected among isolates, thus revealing the existence of different virulence levels in the species. © 2014 British Society for Plant Pathology. Source

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