Patna University, the first university in Bihar, was established in 1917 during the British Raj, and is the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent. At that time, the jurisdiction of the university extended to Bihar, Odisha, and the Kingdom of Nepal. The university oversaw examinations for educational institutions ranging from school finals to the postgraduate levels. This continued almost for four decades, until the establishment of the Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, and the Utkal University, Bhubaneshwar. Wikipedia.
Anand R.,Patna University |
Tiwary B.N.,Guru Ghasidas University
Cytokine | Year: 2010
Studies with non-immunocompromised mice have demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus is more virulent than almost all other Aspergillus species. However, the type of immune response this fungus induces in mammals has not been investigated thoroughly. The study was carried out to analyze the sequential pathogenesis of pulmonary A. flavus infection and the role of cytokines in host response in BALB/c mice. Two distinct phases were observed in mice: First, an intense rate of clearance of A. flavus occurred, most likely through recruited neutrophils and the resident alveolar macrophages with concurrent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and second, fungal and cellular debris were cleaned by recruited monocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokine production rapidly decreased and infection self-healed. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ demonstrated an upward trend up to 24. h PI followed by a steady decline. The titers of TNF-α (a pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokine) were, however, inversely related to the titers of IL-10 an anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokine. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 showed slightly decreasing trend between 12 and 48. h PI, beyond that it again reached to the titers observed at 6. h PI. The infected mice produced signs of Th1 type response with self healing capabilities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Ahmad N.,Patna University |
Sharma S.,Magadh University |
Rai R.,University of Aveiro
Advanced Materials Letters | Year: 2012
We present a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pomegranate peel extract as the reducing agent. Peel extract of Pomegranate was challenged with silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple for the formation of highly stable silver and gold nanoparticles at room temperature by using the biowaste of the fruit. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs were determined from UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. TEM studies showed that the average particle size of silver nanoparticles were 5 ±1.5 nm whereas the gold nanoparticles were found to be 10 ±1.5 nm. An effort has been also been made to understand the possible involved mechanism for the biosynthesis of the NPs. Presumably biosynthetic products or reduced cofactors play an important role in the reduction of respective salts to nanoparticles. © 2012 VBRI Press.
Verma J.,Patna University
Dynamische Psychiatrie | Year: 2013
Mind represents intellect while mind set determines a person's attitude and approach. Identity conceptualized as 'aspects of individuality', 'self-sameness' and 'unique way of going through life and relationships' is also envisaged as 'national character' and 'mentality'. Global identity requires restructuring of personal, emotional and behavioral domains and working with one's mind set. Behind the global face of Indians is an Indian mind set featuring differential sensitivity to the context, nearness and distance in relationships, belief in power distance, and long term perspective, hope and balancing disposition. These cultural features contribute in making of the global Indian. Moreover, knowing the harsh social reality motivates Indians towards sensible economic behavior while their entrepreneurial spirit and spiritual orientation help them become successful and manage difficulties. © 2013 Copyright 'Pinal' Verlag.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2011
Forced swimming, a good physical exercise model, is considerd as a physical stressor also. During physical exercise, oxygen utilization increases 10 -15 folds and it is well established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is a direct function of the rate of oxygen utilization. Oxygen reperfusion is another process of ROS imposition due to physical exercise like swimming though there is also a controversy about oxidative stress development due to exercise that focuses on the elevation in antioxidant defense system due to regular exercise. The present study has been designed to find out the effects of forced swimming and cold restraint stress-induced physical stress imposition in male Swiss albino mice. Ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum was tested for anti-stress, adaptogenic activity in mice using swim endurance test and cold restraint stress. The extract exhibited significant anti-stress, adaptogenic activity by improving the swim duration and restoring the cold restraint stress altered biochemical changes. The aim of the work is to find out the adaptogenic effect of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum in enhancement of performance during stress and also to search out the potentiality of the above mentioned plant products.
Ahmad N.,Patna University |
Sharma S.,An College
International Journal of Nanoparticles | Year: 2012
We present a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pomegranate peel extract as the reducing agent. The extract was challenged with AgNO 3 solution for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The reaction process was simple for the formation of highly stable silver nanoparticles at room temperature by using the biowaste of the fruit. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs was determined from UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and Fourier-Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR). TEM studies showed that the silver nanoparticles obtained were of sizes 5 ± 1.5 nm. An effort has also been made to understand the possible involved mechanism for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Presumably biosynthetic products or reduced cofactors play an important role in the reduction of respective salts to nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.