Patna University, the first university in Bihar, was established in 1917 during the British Raj, and is the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent. At that time, the jurisdiction of the university extended to Bihar, Odisha, and the Kingdom of Nepal. The university oversaw examinations for educational institutions ranging from school finals to the postgraduate levels. This continued almost for four decades, until the establishment of the Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, and the Utkal University, Bhubaneshwar. Wikipedia.
Ahmad N.,Patna University |
Sharma S.,Magadh University |
Rai R.,University of Aveiro
Advanced Materials Letters | Year: 2012
We present a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pomegranate peel extract as the reducing agent. Peel extract of Pomegranate was challenged with silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple for the formation of highly stable silver and gold nanoparticles at room temperature by using the biowaste of the fruit. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs were determined from UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. TEM studies showed that the average particle size of silver nanoparticles were 5 ±1.5 nm whereas the gold nanoparticles were found to be 10 ±1.5 nm. An effort has been also been made to understand the possible involved mechanism for the biosynthesis of the NPs. Presumably biosynthetic products or reduced cofactors play an important role in the reduction of respective salts to nanoparticles. © 2012 VBRI Press.
Ahmad N.,Patna University |
Sharma S.,AN College
International Journal of Nanoparticles | Year: 2012
We present a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pomegranate peel extract as the reducing agent. The extract was challenged with AgNO 3 solution for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The reaction process was simple for the formation of highly stable silver nanoparticles at room temperature by using the biowaste of the fruit. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs was determined from UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and Fourier-Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR). TEM studies showed that the silver nanoparticles obtained were of sizes 5 ± 1.5 nm. An effort has also been made to understand the possible involved mechanism for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Presumably biosynthetic products or reduced cofactors play an important role in the reduction of respective salts to nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Anand R.,Patna University |
Tiwary B.N.,Guru Ghasidas University
Cytokine | Year: 2010
Studies with non-immunocompromised mice have demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus is more virulent than almost all other Aspergillus species. However, the type of immune response this fungus induces in mammals has not been investigated thoroughly. The study was carried out to analyze the sequential pathogenesis of pulmonary A. flavus infection and the role of cytokines in host response in BALB/c mice. Two distinct phases were observed in mice: First, an intense rate of clearance of A. flavus occurred, most likely through recruited neutrophils and the resident alveolar macrophages with concurrent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and second, fungal and cellular debris were cleaned by recruited monocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokine production rapidly decreased and infection self-healed. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ demonstrated an upward trend up to 24. h PI followed by a steady decline. The titers of TNF-α (a pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokine) were, however, inversely related to the titers of IL-10 an anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokine. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 showed slightly decreasing trend between 12 and 48. h PI, beyond that it again reached to the titers observed at 6. h PI. The infected mice produced signs of Th1 type response with self healing capabilities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Khan P.K.,Patna University |
Kesari V.P.,Patna University |
Kumar A.,Patna University
Chemosphere | Year: 2013
Exposure to high contents of arsenic (a genotoxic carcinogen) in humans through drinking water is one of the most serious concerns in many parts of the world including India. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended a permissible limit of daily exposure in humans to arsenic as its reference dose (0.3μgkg-1d-1) with almost no likelihood of any adverse effect. The present work was a quantitative assessment of the genotoxic potential of arsenic at the exposure level of its human reference dose through micronucleus (MN) assay in mice. The animals were exposed to various doses of arsenic through oral gavaging for 15 consecutive days. Significant increases in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes were observed in mice upon exposure to arsenic which occurred even at its human reference dose and in a dose-dependent manner. The study of the genotoxic potential of arsenic in humans at lower exposure levels (including its human reference dose) is, therefore, highly desirable for risk assessment and hazard identification. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Sayantan D.,Patna University |
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013
Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium×5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125. mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Kesari V.P.,Patna University |
Kumar A.,Patna University |
Khan P.K.,Patna University
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012
Arsenic, a highly hazardous contaminant in our drinking water, accounts for various toxic effects (including cancer) in human. However, intake of arsenic at 0.3μgkg -1day -1 through drinking water, containing arsenic at its guideline value or maximum contaminant limit (10μgL -1), has been estimated to pose very little or no measurable risk to cancer in humans. The value also appears to be equal to the human reference dose (or index dose) of arsenic based on human skin toxicity data. The present work was a quantitative assessment of the genotoxic potential of arsenic in mice at doses equivalent to its human reference dose as well as its multiples. Significant increases in the frequencies of chromosome abnormalities in the bone marrow cells were registered over the control level upon exposure to all the doses of arsenic including its reference dose (or index dose). The assessment of arsenic genotoxicity in humans at low doses will therefore be highly instrumental in establishing a permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Verma J.,Patna University
Dynamische Psychiatrie | Year: 2013
Mind represents intellect while mind set determines a person's attitude and approach. Identity conceptualized as 'aspects of individuality', 'self-sameness' and 'unique way of going through life and relationships' is also envisaged as 'national character' and 'mentality'. Global identity requires restructuring of personal, emotional and behavioral domains and working with one's mind set. Behind the global face of Indians is an Indian mind set featuring differential sensitivity to the context, nearness and distance in relationships, belief in power distance, and long term perspective, hope and balancing disposition. These cultural features contribute in making of the global Indian. Moreover, knowing the harsh social reality motivates Indians towards sensible economic behavior while their entrepreneurial spirit and spiritual orientation help them become successful and manage difficulties. © 2013 Copyright 'Pinal' Verlag.
Mishra N.K.,Patna University
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica | Year: 2011
Oocytes behave as macrophages as they internalize solid and liquid substances required for their growth and competence. This activity is more pronounced in lower invertebrates. The slowing of endocytic activity may be caused by constraints imposed by surrounding nurse cells and by the amount of accumulated yolk precursors. The genes concerned with endocytic activity in oocytes are controlled by a negative feedback signal provided by accumulated yolk and/or by signal transduction. © Polish Society for Histochemistry and Cytochemistry Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2011.
Komal R.,Patna University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011
In order to reduce the cost and time of in vitro raised plants of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., a minimal medium has been formulated by substituting costly growth regulators from the medium with a cost effective constituent, the coconut milk. A semisolid Murashige and Skoogs's medium supplemented exclusively with 15% coconut milk showed the highest percentage of plantlet regeneration (99%) in the explants. When nodal, shoot-tip and immature leaf explants were cultured on this medium, rhizogenesis was observed in about 5 to 6 days of inoculation, followed by shoot formation in about 8 to 10 days. The fully developed plantlets, 10 to 12 cm in length with professed roots were obtained in about 20 days of inoculation in a single step without adding/changing growth regulators. After transplantation in the potted soil, these plantlets showed similar growth patterns as compared to the plants obtained from a conventional three-four step method of tissue culture experiments. © 2011 Academic Journals.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2011
Forced swimming, a good physical exercise model, is considerd as a physical stressor also. During physical exercise, oxygen utilization increases 10 -15 folds and it is well established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is a direct function of the rate of oxygen utilization. Oxygen reperfusion is another process of ROS imposition due to physical exercise like swimming though there is also a controversy about oxidative stress development due to exercise that focuses on the elevation in antioxidant defense system due to regular exercise. The present study has been designed to find out the effects of forced swimming and cold restraint stress-induced physical stress imposition in male Swiss albino mice. Ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum was tested for anti-stress, adaptogenic activity in mice using swim endurance test and cold restraint stress. The extract exhibited significant anti-stress, adaptogenic activity by improving the swim duration and restoring the cold restraint stress altered biochemical changes. The aim of the work is to find out the adaptogenic effect of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum in enhancement of performance during stress and also to search out the potentiality of the above mentioned plant products.