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Kehie M.,Patkai Christian College Autonomous | Kumaria S.,North - Eastern Hill University | Tandon P.,North - Eastern Hill University | Ramchiary N.,Jawaharlal Nehru University
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2014

One of the main characteristics of chili pepper fruit is its pungent taste due to the presence of a group of compounds known as capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids biosynthesis in chili plant is defined by two pathways: phenylpropanoid, which determines phenolic structure; and fatty acid metabolism, which determines the molecule's fatty acids. The potency of chili pepper cells, tissue and organ to biosynthesize capsaicinoids in in vitro cultures have been a subject of intensive research. Recent findings demonstrated that manipulation of culture strategies viz., immobilization of cells, precursors feeding, cell selection, elicitors treatments, osmotic stress, influence of calcium channel modulators, nutrient stress, pH stress etc. to enhance the accumulation of capsaicinoids in in vitro cultures of chili pepper have resulted in significant increase. However, the levels of capsaicinoids accumulation in cell cultures have never reached the levels in the fruits and require more efficient strategies to enhance the capsaicinoids biosynthetic activity. The present review highlights a comprehensive overview of capsaicinoids biosynthesis, its clinical applications and consolidated results of studies on biotechnological advances in chili pepper research leading to the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids in in vitro cultures. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kehie M.,Patkai Christian College Autonomous | Kumaria S.,North - Eastern Hill University | Devi K.S.,North - Eastern Hill University | Tandon P.,North - Eastern Hill University
Meta Gene | Year: 2016

Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNAs were explored to study the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili. Our study indicated the occurrence of nucleotide polymorphism and haplotypic diversity in the ITS regions. The present study demonstrated that the variability of ITS1 with respect to nucleotide diversity and sequence polymorphism exceeded that of ITS2. Sequence analysis of 5.8S gene revealed a much conserved region in all the accessions of Naga King Chili. However, strong phylogenetic information of this species is the distinct 13 bp deletion in the 5.8S gene which discriminated Naga King Chili from the rest of the Capsicum sp. Neutrality test results implied a neutral variation, and population seems to be evolving at drift-mutation equilibrium and free from directed selection pressure. Furthermore, mismatch analysis showed multimodal curve indicating a demographic equilibrium. Phylogenetic relationships revealed by Median Joining Network (MJN) analysis denoted a clear discrimination of Naga King Chili from its closest sister species (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens). The absence of star-like network of haplotypes suggested an ancient population expansion of this chili. © 2015 The Authors.


Kehie M.,Patkai Christian College Autonomous | Kumaria S.,North - Eastern Hill University | Tandon P.,North - Eastern Hill University
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2016

Cell suspension cultures were initiated from hypocotyl derived callus to induce capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Efficient capsaicin production with high growth index (GI) was obtained by exposing cells to salicylic acid (SA) and calcium channel modulators in suspension cultures. The time course of capsaicin formation is related to the cell growth profile in a batch culture. Cells cultivated in the standard medium (SM) initially showed low level of capsaicin yield during active growth. When the cells approached stationary phase, cell growth and cell viability decreased whereas capsaicin production increased continuously. In the fed-batch cultures, the highest capsaicin yield (567.4 ± 8.1 μgg1 fresh weight) (f.wt) was obtained by feeding the cells with 1 mM SA. However, SA feeding during cultivation repressed the cell growth. Enhanced cell growth (3.1 ± 0.1 GI/culture) and capsaicin yield (534 ± 7.8 μgg-1f.wt) were obtained when the cells were fed with calcium ionophore A23187 (0.5 mM) on day 25 as compared to the control. Addition of the calcium channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride (100 mM) inhibited cell growth and capsaicin production in Naga King Chili suspension cell cultures. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | North - Eastern Hill University and Patkai Christian College Autonomous
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioprocess and biosystems engineering | Year: 2016

Cell suspension cultures were initiated from hypocotyl derived callus to induce capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Efficient capsaicin production with high growth index (GI) was obtained by exposing cells to salicylic acid (SA) and calcium channel modulators in suspension cultures. The time course of capsaicin formation is related to the cell growth profile in a batch culture. Cells cultivated in the standard medium (SM) initially showed low level of capsaicin yield during active growth. When the cells approached stationary phase, cell growth and cell viability decreased whereas capsaicin production increased continuously. In the fed-batch cultures, the highest capsaicin yield (567.4 8.1 gg(1) fresh weight) (f.wt) was obtained by feeding the cells with 1 mM SA. However, SA feeding during cultivation repressed the cell growth. Enhanced cell growth (3.1 0.1 GI/culture) and capsaicin yield (534 7.8 gg(-1)f.wt) were obtained when the cells were fed with calcium ionophore A23187 (0.5 mM) on day 25 as compared to the control. Addition of the calcium channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride (100 mM) inhibited cell growth and capsaicin production in Naga King Chili suspension cell cultures.


PubMed | North - Eastern Hill University and Patkai Christian College Autonomous
Type: | Journal: Meta gene | Year: 2016

Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNAs were explored to study the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili. Our study indicated the occurrence of nucleotide polymorphism and haplotypic diversity in the ITS regions. The present study demonstrated that the variability of ITS1 with respect to nucleotide diversity and sequence polymorphism exceeded that of ITS2. Sequence analysis of 5.8S gene revealed a much conserved region in all the accessions of Naga King Chili. However, strong phylogenetic information of this species is the distinct 13bp deletion in the 5.8S gene which discriminated Naga King Chili from the rest of the Capsicum sp. Neutrality test results implied a neutral variation, and population seems to be evolving at drift-mutation equilibrium and free from directed selection pressure. Furthermore, mismatch analysis showed multimodal curve indicating a demographic equilibrium. Phylogenetic relationships revealed by Median Joining Network (MJN) analysis denoted a clear discrimination of Naga King Chili from its closest sister species (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens). The absence of star-like network of haplotypes suggested an ancient population expansion of this chili.

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