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Ferraro E.,Pathophysiology and Treatment of Muscle Wasting Disorders Unit | Giammarioli A.M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Chiandotto S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Spoletini I.,Pathophysiology and Treatment of Muscle Wasting Disorders Unit | Rosano G.,Pathophysiology and Treatment of Muscle Wasting Disorders Unit
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

Significance: Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue. Exercise evokes signaling pathways that strongly modify myofiber metabolism and physiological and contractile properties of skeletal muscle. Regular physical activity is beneficial for health and is highly recommended for the prevention of several chronic conditions. In this review, we have focused our attention on the pathways that are known to mediate physical training-induced plasticity. Recent Advances: An important role for redox signaling has recently been proposed in exercise-mediated muscle remodeling and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) activation. Still more currently, autophagy has also been found to be involved in metabolic adaptation to exercise. Critical Issues: Both redox signaling and autophagy are processes with ambivalent effects; they can be detrimental and beneficial, depending on their delicate balance. As such, understanding their role in the chain of events induced by exercise and leading to skeletal muscle remodeling is a very complicated matter. Moreover, the study of the signaling induced by exercise is made even more difficult by the fact that exercise can be performed with several different modalities, with this having different repercussions on adaptation. Future Directions: Unraveling the complexity of the molecular signaling triggered by exercise on skeletal muscle is crucial in order to define the therapeutic potentiality of physical training and to identify new pharmacological compounds that are able to reproduce some beneficial effects of exercise. In evaluating the effect of new "exercise mimetics," it will also be necessary to take into account the involvement of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and autophagy and their controversial effects. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 154-176. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Vitiello L.,Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology | Spoletini I.,Center for Clinical and Basic Research | Gorini S.,Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology | Pontecorvo L.,Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology | And 5 more authors.
IJC Metabolic and Endocrine | Year: 2014

Atherogenesis is the pathogenetic process leading to formation of the atheroma lesion. It is associated to a chronic inflammatory state initially stimulated by an aberrant accumulation of lipid molecules beyond the endothelial barrier. This event triggers a cascade of deleterious events mainly through immune cell stimulation with the consequent liberation of potent pro-inflammatory and tissue damaging mediators. The atherogenetic process implies marked modifications of endothelial cell functions and a radical change in the endothelial-leukocyte interaction pattern. Moreover, accumulating evidence shows an important link between microvascular and inflammatory responses and major cardiovascular risk factors. This review illustrates the current knowledge on the effects of obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes on microcirculation; their pathophysiological implications will be discussed. © 2014 The Authors.

Ferraro E.,Pathophysiology and Treatment of Muscle Wasting Disorders Unit | Giammarioli A.M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Caldarola S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Lista P.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 6 more authors.
FEBS Journal | Year: 2013

It has recently been demonstrated that trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-ischemic antianginal agent, is also able to improve exercise performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease. TMZ is a metabolic modulator, and the mechanisms underlying its cytoprotective anti-ischemic activity could be ascribed, at least in cardiomyocytes, to optimization of metabolism. However, regarding the cytoprotection exerted by TMZ on skeletal muscle and allowing the improvement of exercise performance, no information is yet available. In the present study, we investigated in detail the protective effects of this drug on in vitro skeletal muscle models of atrophy. Experiments carried out with murine C2C12 myotubes treated with TMZ revealed that this drug could efficiently counteract the cytopathic effects induced by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α and by the withdrawal of growth factors. Indeed, TMZ significantly counteracted the reduction in myotube size induced by these treatments. TMZ also increased myosin heavy chain expression and induced hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes, both effects strongly suggesting a role of TMZ in counteracting atrophy in vitro. In particular, we found that TMZ was able to activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin 2 pathway and to reduce the stress-induced transcriptional upregulation of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein 1, and myostatin, all of which are key molecules involved in muscle wasting. Moreover, this is the first demonstration that TMZ induces autophagy, a key mechanism involved in muscle mass regulation. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that the improvement in exercise performance previously observed in patients could be ascribed to a cytoprotective mechanism exerted by TMZ on skeletal muscle integrity. © 2013 FEBS.

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