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Cantu E.,University of Pennsylvania | Lederer D.J.,Columbia University | Meyer K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Milewski K.,University of Pennsylvania | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2013

We hypothesized alterations in gene expression could identify important pathways involved in transplant lung injury. Broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was sampled from donors prior to procurement and in recipients within an hour of reperfusion as part of the NIAID Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation Study. Twenty-three patients with Grade 3 primary graft dysfunction (PGD) were frequency matched with controls based on donor age and recipient diagnosis. RNA was analyzed using the Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Normalized mRNA expression was transformed and differences between donor and postreperfusion values were ranked then tested using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Three-hundred sixty-two gene sets were upregulated, with eight meeting significance (familywise-error rate, FWER p-value <0.05), including the NOD-like receptor inflammasome (NLR; p < 0.001), toll-like receptors (TLR; p < 0.001), IL-1 receptor (p = 0.001), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (p = 0.001), NFkB activation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (p = 0.001), TLR4 (p = 0.008) and TLR 9 (p = 0.018). The top five ranked individual transcripts from these pathways based on rank metric score are predominantly present in the NLR and TLR pathways, including IL1β (1.162), NLRP3 (1.135), IL1α (0.952), IL6 (0.931) and CCL4 (0.842). Gene set enrichment analyses implicate inflammasome-mediated and innate immune signaling pathways as key mediators of the development of PGD in lung transplant patients. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Source

Oh J.,University of Pennsylvania | Sanders I.F.,University of Pennsylvania | Chen E.Z.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chen E.Z.,University of Pennsylvania | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

HSV is a large double stranded DNA virus, capable of causing a variety of diseases from the common cold sore to devastating encephalitis. Although DNA within the HSV virion does not contain any histone protein, within 1 h of infecting a cell and entering its nucleus the viral genome acquires some histone protein (nucleosomes). During lytic infection, partial micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion does not give the classic ladder band pattern, seen on digestion of cell DNA or latent viral DNA. However, complete digestion does give a mono-nucleosome band, strongly suggesting that there are some nucleosomes present on the viral genome during the lytic infection, but that they are not evenly positioned, with a 200bp repeat pattern, like cell DNA. Where then are the nucleosomes positioned? Here we perform HSV-1 genome wide nucleosome mapping, at a time when viral replication is in full swing (6hr PI), using a microarray consisting of 50mer oligonucleotides, covering the whole viral genome (152kb). Arrays were probed with MNase-protected fragments of DNA from infected cells. Cells were not treated with crosslinking agents, thus we are only mapping tightly bound nucleosomes. The data show that nucleosome deposition is not random. The distribution of signal on the arrays suggest that nucleosomes are located at preferred positions on the genome, and that there are some positions that are not occupied (nucleosome free regions -NFR or Nucleosome depleted regions -NDR), or occupied at frequency below our limit of detection in the population of genomes. Occupancy of only a fraction of the possible sites may explain the lack of a typical MNase partial digestion band ladder pattern for HSV DNA during lytic infection. On average, DNA encoding Immediate Early (IE), Early (E) and Late (L) genes appear to have a similar density of nucleosomes. © 2015 Oh et al. Source

Baldwin D.A.,Pathonomics LLC | Baldwin D.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Sarnowski C.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Reddy S.A.,University of Pennsylvania | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Techniques | Year: 2013

A microarray (LungCaGxE), based on Illumina Bead Chip technology, was developed for high-resolution genotyping of genes that are candidates for involvement in environmentally driven aspects of lung cancer oncogenesis and/or tumor growth. The iterative array design process illustrates techniques for managing large panels of candidate genes and optimizing marker selection, aided by a new bioinformatics pipeline component, Tagger Batch Assistant. The LungCaGxE platform targets 298 genes and the proximal genetic regions in which they are located, using ~13,000 DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which include haplotype linkage markers with a minimum allele frequency of 1% and additional specifically targeted SNPs, for which published reports have indicated functional consequences or associations with lung cancer or other smoking-related diseases. The overall assay conversion rate was 98.9%; 99.0% of markers with a minimum Illumina design score of 0.6 successfully generated allele calls using genomic DNA from a study population of 1873 lung-cancer patients and controls. © 2013 ABRF. Source

Zhang H.,Yale University | Baldwin D.A.,Pathonomics LLC | Bukowski R.K.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Parry S.,University of Pennsylvania | And 86 more authors.
Genetic Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive research, the genetic contributions to spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) are not well understood. Term controls were matched with cases by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and parity prior to recruitment. Genotyping was performed using Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 assays. Statistical analyses utilized PLINK to compare allele occurrence rates between case and control groups, and incorporated quality control and multiple-testing adjustments. We analyzed DNA samples from mother-infant pairs from early SPTB cases (200/7-336/7 weeks, 959 women and 979 neonates) and term delivery controls (390/7-416/7 weeks, 960 women and 985 neonates). For validation purposes, we included an independent validation cohort consisting of early SPTB cases (293 mothers and 243 infants) and term controls (200 mothers and 149 infants). Clustering analysis revealed no population stratification. Multiple maternal SNPs were identified with association P-values between 10 × 10-5 and 10 × 10-6. The most significant maternal SNP was rs17053026 on chromosome 3 with an odds ratio (OR) 0.44 with a P-value of 1.0 × 10-6. Two neonatal SNPs reached the genome-wide significance threshold, including rs17527054 on chromosome 6p22 with a P-value of 2.7 × 10-12 and rs3777722 on chromosome 6q27 with a P-value of 1.4 × 10-10. However, we could not replicate these findings after adjusting for multiple comparisons in a validation cohort. This is the first report of a genome-wide case-control study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that correlate with SPTB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Li S.,New York Medical College | Tighe S.W.,University of Vermont | Nicolet C.M.,University of Southern California | Grove D.,Pennsylvania State University | And 27 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2014

High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) greatly expands the potential for genomics discoveries, but the wide variety of platforms, protocols and performance capabilitites has created the need for comprehensive reference data. Here we describe the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities next-generation sequencing (ABRF-NGS) study on RNA-seq. We carried out replicate experiments across 15 laboratory sites using reference RNA standards to test four protocols (poly-A-selected, ribo-depleted, size-selected and degraded) on five sequencing platforms (Illumina HiSeq, Life Technologies PGM and Proton, Pacific Biosciences RS and Roche 454). The results show high intraplatform (Spearman rank R > 0.86) and inter-platform (R > 0.83) concordance for expression measures across the deep-count platforms, but highly variable efficiency and cost for splice junction and variant detection between all platforms. For intact RNA, gene expression profiles from rRNA-depletion and poly-A enrichment are similar. In addition, rRNA depletion enables effective analysis of degraded RNA samples. This study provides a broad foundation for cross-platform standardization, evaluation and improvement of RNA-seq. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. Source

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