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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Carrion J.A.,Liver Unit | Torres F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Crespo G.,Liver Unit | Miquel R.,Pathology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

Significant liver fibrosis (F ≥ 2) and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] ≥ 6 mmHg) at 1 year after liver transplantation (LT) identify patients with severe hepatitis C recurrence. We evaluated whether repeated liver stiffness measurements (LSM) following LT can discriminate between slow and rapid "fibrosers" (fibrosis stage F2-F4 at 1 year after LT). Eighty-four patients who had undergone LT and who were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 19 LT controls who were not infected with HCV underwent LSM at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after LT. All HCV-infected patients underwent liver biopsy 12 months after LT (paired HVPG measurements in 74); 31 (37%) were rapid fibrosers. Median LSM (in kilopascal) at months 6, 9, and 12 were significantly higher in rapid fibrosers (9.9, 9.5, 12.1) than in slow fibrosers (6.9, 7.5, 6.6) (P < 0.01 all time points). The slope of liver stiffness progression (kPa x month) in rapid fibrosers (0.42) was significantly greater than in slow fibrosers (0.05) (P < 0.001), suggesting two different speeds of liver fibrosis progression. Figures were almost identical for patients with HVPG ≥ 6 mmHg or HVPG < 6 mmHg at 1 year after LT. Multivariate analysis identified donor age, bilirubin level, and LSM as independent predictors of fibrosis progression and portal hypertension in the estimation group (n = 50) and were validated in a second group of 34 patients. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve that could identify rapid fibrosers and patients with portal hypertension as early as 6 months after LT were 0.83 and 0.87, respectively, in the estimation group and 0.75 and 0.80, respectively, in the validation group. Conclusion: Early and repeated LSM following hepatitis C recurrence in combination with clinical variables discriminates between rapid and slow fibrosers after LT. Copyright © 2009 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Caresana G.,Dermatology Unit | Giardini R.,Pathology Unit
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2010

Background: In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), excision margins between 3 and 10 mm, according to site, size, borders, previous treatment and histology, can allow for radical excision in at least 95% of cases. Objective: The objective was to ascertain whether dermoscopy can detect more accurately the lateral borders in BCCs than clinical examination alone, and allow us to obtain radical excision in more than 95% of cases with only 2-mm excision margins. Methods: A prospective study was performed of 200 consecutive BCCs of the head and neck removed with 2-mm dermoscopically detected excision margins. Morpheaform BCC, deeply recurrent BCC, BCC in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, BCC located in sites not accessible through dermoscopy and superficial multifocal BCC were excluded. All cases of excised BCC were submitted to a uniform method of histological examination of the whole specimen with serial parallel sections at 2-mm intervals. Results: In only three cases did surgical excision with 2-mm margins prove to be inadequate; in the remaining 197 cases, the excision margins were tumour-free. The comparison of clinical and dermoscopic extension measurement showed concordance in 131 cases (65.5%). In 69 cases (34.5%), dermoscopic evaluation showed a larger peripheral extension. Conclusions: These results indicate that 2-mm dermoscopically detected excision margins can achieve histologically confirmed complete excisions in 98.5% of cases. © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

Nobili V.,HepatoMetabolic Diseases Unit | Cutrera R.,Pneumology Unit | Liccardo D.,HepatoMetabolic Diseases Unit | Pavone M.,Pneumology Unit | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are frequently encountered in obese children. Whether OSAS and intermittent hypoxia are associated with liver injury in pediatric NAFLD is unknown. Objectives: To assess the relationship of OSAS with liver injury in pediatric NAFLD. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive children with biopsy-proven NAFLD (age, mean ± SD, 11.7 ± 2.1 yr; 58% boys; body mass index z score, 1.93 ± 0.61) underwent a clinical-biochemical assessment and a standard polysomnography. Insulin sensitivity, circulating proinflammatory cytokines, markers of hepatocyte apoptosis (cytokeratin-18 fragments), and hepatic fibrogenesis (hyaluronic acid) were measured. Liver inflammatory infiltrate was characterized by immunohistochemistry for CD45, CD3, and CD163, surface markers of leukocytes, T cells, and activated macrophage/Kupffer cells, respectively. OSAS was defined by an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) greater than or equal to 1 event/h, and severe OSAS was defined by an AHI greater than or equal to 5 events/h. Measurements and Main Results: Fifty-five percent of children with NAFLD had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 34% had significant (stage F ≥ 2) fibrosis. OSAS affected 60% of children with NAFLD; the presence and severity of OSAS were associated with the presence of NASH (odds ratio, 4.89; 95% confidence interval, 3.08-5.98; P = 0.0001), significant fibrosis (odds ratio, 5.91; 95% confidence interval, 3.23-7.42; P = 0.0001), and NAFLD activity score (b, 0.347; P = 0.029), independently of body mass index, abdominal adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. This relationship held also in nonobese children with NAFLD. The duration of hemoglobin desaturation (SaO2 < 90%) correlated with increased intrahepatic leukocytes and activated macrophages/Kupffer cells and with circulating markers of hepatocyte apoptosis and fibrogenesis. Conclusions: In pediatric NAFLD, OSAS is associated with biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histological features of NASH and fibrosis. The impact of hypoxemia correction on liver disease severity warrants evaluation in future trials. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.

Donato M.F.,University of Milan | Monico S.,University of Milan | Malinverno F.,University of Milan | Aghemo A.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Liver International | Year: 2015

Background & Aims: Recurrence of hepatitis C is a major cause of graft loss and shortened survival in patients receiving a liver transplant (LT) for end-stage hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The only way to improve graft and patient outcomes is a successful eradication of HCV infection by antiviral therapy either before or after transplant. This was achievable in a small proportion of recipients by IFN-based regimens, but could be obtained in the majority of them by using DAA IFN-free regimens before/after transplant. Methods: We describe a patient with decompensated cirrhosis because of severe recurrent hepatitis C, who had a retransplant following treatment with a combination of sofosbuvir and riba virin that started during the waiting time and was carried over during both the transplant and post-transplant phases for an overall period of 24 weeks. The patient gave a written consent to receive Sofosbuvir plus Rbv therapy pre and post-transplant. Results: Post-transplant serum HCV-RNA remains undetectable 24 weeks after discontinuing sofosbuvir and ribavirin (SVR24). Conclusions: Waiting for direct antiviral agents combinations, our findings not only support the use of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin as the first-line treatment in all patients on the LT waiting list, but also suggest to bridge treatment to the post-transplant period in case HCV RNA undetectability for at least 30 days has not been achieved at the time of LT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Lallas A.,Skin Cancer Unit | Kyrgidis A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Ferrara G.,Anatomic Pathology Unit | Kittler H.,Medical University of Vienna | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been proposed as a diagnostic method for estimation of the malignant potential of atypical Spitz tumours. However, although cell deposits are commonly detected in the sentinel lymph nodes of patients with atypical Spitz tumours, their prognosis is substantially better than that of patients with melanoma and positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. We did a systematic review of published reports to assess the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a prognostic method in the management of atypical Spitz tumours. The results of our analysis did not show any prognostic benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy; having a positive sentinel lymph node does not seem to predict a poorer outcome for patients with atypical Spitz tumours. These findings indicate that, especially in the paediatric population, it might be prudent initially to use complete excision with clear margins and careful clinical follow-up in patients with atypical Spitz tumours. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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