Whiley D.M.,Queensland Childrens Medical Research Institute |
Whiley D.M.,University of Queensland |
Goire N.,Queensland Childrens Medical Research Institute |
Goire N.,University of Queensland |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012
From a once easily treatable infection, gonorrhoea has evolved into a challenging disease, which in future may become untreatable in certain circumstances. International spread of extensively drug-resistant gonococci would have severe public health implications. It seems clear that under the current treatment pressure from extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and owing to Neisseria gonorrhoeae's remarkable evolutionary adaptability, further rise of ceftriaxone-resistant strains around the world is inevitable. Simply increasing the doses of extended-spectrum cephalosporins will likely prove ineffective in the long run, and has been a lesson learnt for all single-agent therapies used for gonorrhoea to date. We recommend that dual therapy, especially those consisting of extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin, be adopted more widely and complemented by strengthening of antimicrobial resistance surveillance. Unless there is urgent action at international and local levels to combat the problem of N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance, we are in for gloomy times ahead in terms of gonorrhoea disease and control. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
O'Rourke K.M.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
Correlje E.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
Martin C.L.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
Robertson J.D.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
Isbister G.K.,University of Newcastle
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2013
Introduction Point-of-care international normalised ratio (INR) has been suggested as a way to screen for venom-induced consumption coagulopathy following snakebite, but has not been validated for this. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic reliability of point-of-care INR for venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. Methods This was a prospective study of snakebite patients recruited between January 2011 and May 2012 where a point-of-care INR was done and compared to an INR done on a laboratory coagulation analyser, as part of a quality assurance exercise. Data was obtained for each patient, including demographics, information on the snake bite, the point-of-care INR results and any laboratory derived coagulation studies. Snake identification was confirmed by expert identification or venom specific enzyme immunoassay. Results There were 15 patients with a median age of 29 years (2 to 68y) and 13 were male. Four of the 7 patients with venom-induced consumption coagulopathy had an abnormal point-of-care INR (3 false negatives) and 1 of the 7 non-envenomed patients had an abnormal point-of-care INR (1 false positive). The patient with a falsely elevated point-of-care INR was given antivenom prior to formal coagulation studies. The point-of-care INR was also negative in the patient with an anticoagulant coagulopathy. Conclusions The study shows that point-of-care INR testing devices should not be used in suspected snakebite cases in Australia to diagnose venom-induced consumption coagulopathy. © 2013 Regular Article.
Nimmo G.R.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
Nimmo G.R.,Griffith University |
Bergh H.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
Nakos J.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2013
Objective: To describe the changing prevalence of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA. Methods: Susceptibility phenotypes of MRSA were observed from 2000 to 2012 using routine susceptibility data. Phenotypic definitions of major clones were validated by genotyping isolates from a nested period prevalence survey in 2011. Results: The predominant healthcare-associated (AUS-2/3 like) MRSA phenotype decreased from 42 to 14 isolates per million occasions of service in outpatients (P<0.0001) and from 650 to 75 isolates per million accrued patient days in inpatients (P 0.0005), while the respective rates of the healthcare-related EMRSA-15 like phenotype increased from 1 to 19 in outpatients (P<0.0001) and from 11 to 83 in inpatients (P<0.0001) and those of the community-associated MRSA phenotype increased from 17 to 296 in outpatients (P<0.0001) and from 71 to 486 in inpatients (P<0.0001). When compared with single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping the AUS-2/3 like phenotype had a sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for CC239 of 1 and 0.791 respectively, while the EMRSA-15 like phenotype had a sensitivity and PPV for CC22 of 0.903 and 0.774. PVL-positive CA-MRSA, predominantly ST93 and CC30, accounted for 60.8% of MRSA, while PVL-negative CA-MRSA, mainly CC5 and CC1, accounted for 21.4%. Conclusions: The initially dominant healthcare-associated MRSA clone has been progressively replaced, mainly by four community-associated lineages. © 2013.
Rockett R.J.,University of Queensland |
Sloots T.P.,University of Queensland |
Bowes S.,University of Queensland |
O'Neill N.,University of Queensland |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Eight novel human polyomaviruses have been discovered since 2007. Prevalence rates and tissue tropism for the most recent members HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV are largely unknown. We used real-time PCR to determine the presence of HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV in feces (n = 263), urine (n = 189), blood (n = 161), respiratory swabs (n = 1385) and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 171) from both healthy control children and children and adults undergoing diagnostic testing. Whole genome sequencing was able to be performed on 9 MWPyV positive specimens. Novel polyomaviruses were only detected in respiratory swabs and feces, with no detections of HPyV 9 in any sample type. MWPyV was found to be the most prevalent novel polyomavirus, being detected in 18 (1.5%) respiratory specimens from symptomatic patients, 16 (9.8%) respiratory sample from healthy control children, 11 (5.9%) fecal specimens from patient suffering gastrointestinal illness, and in 13 (15.3%) of feces from healthy control children. MWPyV was found only in respiratory and fecal specimens from children, the oldest being 9 years old. HPyV 6, 7, 9 and TSPyV were also detected in respiratory specimens and fecal specimens at low prevalence (<1.3%). The majority of these detections were found in immunocompromised patients. Our findings suggest that MWPyV can result in a subclinical infection, persistent or intermittent shedding, particularly in young children. The other novel polyomaviruses were also found in respiratory and fecal specimens, but at lower prevalence and most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. © 2013 Rockett et al.
Tozer S.J.,University of Queensland |
Lambert S.B.,University of Queensland |
Lambert S.B.,Queensland Health |
Strong C.L.,Griffith University |
And 4 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2014
Q fever is a vaccine-preventable disease; despite this, high annual notification numbers are still recorded in Australia. We have previously shown seroprevalence in Queensland metropolitan regions is approaching that of rural areas. This study investigated the presence of nucleic acid from Coxiella burnetii, the agent responsible for Q fever, in a number of animal and environmental samples collected throughout Queensland, to identify potential sources of human infection. Samples were collected from 129 geographical locations and included urine, faeces and whole blood from 22 different animal species; 45 ticks were removed from two species, canines and possums; 151 soil samples; 72 atmospheric dust samples collected from two locations and 50 dust swabs collected from domestic vacuum cleaners. PCR testing was performed targeting the IS1111 and COM1 genes for the specific detection of C. burnetii DNA. There were 85 detections from 1318 animal samples, giving a detection rate for each sample type ranging from 2.1 to 6.8%. Equine samples produced a detection rate of 11.9%, whilst feline and canine samples showed detection rates of 7.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Native animals had varying detection rates: pooled urines from flying foxes had 7.8%, whilst koalas had 5.1%, and 6.7% of ticks screened were positive. The soil and dust samples showed the presence of C. burnetii DNA ranging from 2.0 to 6.9%, respectively. These data show that specimens from a variety of animal species and the general environment provide a number of potential sources for C. burnetii infections of humans living in Queensland. These previously unrecognized sources may account for the high seroprevalence rates seen in putative low-risk communities, including Q fever patients with no direct animal contact and those subjects living in a low-risk urban environment. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Williamson D.A.,University of Auckland |
Williamson D.A.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research |
Coombs G.W.,Curtin University Australia |
Coombs G.W.,Royal Perth Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014
The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Nethercott C.,University of Queensland |
Mabbett A.N.,University of Queensland |
Totsika M.,University of Queensland |
Peters P.,Princess Alexandra Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninetyseven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.
Playford E.G.,Princess Alexandra Hospital |
Playford E.G.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
Playford E.G.,University of Queensland |
Nimmo G.R.,Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2010
Given variability in the epidemiology of candidaemia and a relative paucity of contemporary longitudinal data, a passive laboratory-based surveillance study was performed to assess the epidemiology of candidaemia in all public healthcare facilities in Queensland, Australia over the period 1999-2008. Demographic and microbiological data on all candidaemia episodes, together with appropriate denominators (admissions and patient-days), were collected from laboratory and administrative information systems. From 1999 to 2008, 1137 episodes occurred (overall incidence-density: 0.45 per 10 000 patient-days) with a 3.5-fold increase in density (P<0.0001 for trend). Candidaemia episodes originating in traditional high-risk areas either decreased (haemato-oncology and paediatric wards) or remained stable (intensive care units). Episodes on adult medical/surgical wards increased significantly over time, accounting for 60% of the total by 2008. The relative proportion caused by Candida albicans decreased and Candida parapsilosis increased (both P<0.01). The proportion of fluconazole-resistant isolates did not change. The increasing occurrence of candidaemia outside traditional high-risk areas and the emergence of C. parapsilosis present new challenges for preventive and early intervention strategies. © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society.
Rockett R.J.,Queensland Childrens Medical Rese Arch Institute |
Bialasiewicz S.,Queensland Childrens Medical Rese Arch Institute |
Mhango L.,Queensland Childrens Medical Rese Arch Institute |
Gaydon J.,Queensland Childrens Medical Rese Arch Institute |
And 12 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015
We investigated the presence of 4 human polyomaviruses (PyVs) (WU, KI, Merkel cell, and Malawi) in respiratory specimens from a community-based birth cohort. These viruses typically were acquired when children were ≈1 year of age. We provide evidence that WU, KI, and Malawi, but not Merkel cell PyVs, might have a role in respiratory infections. © Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.
PubMed | Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory, Health Diagnostic Laboratory, The Canberra Hospital, Murdoch University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report | Year: 2016
From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall, 18.8% of the 2,206 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which was significantly higher than that reported in most European countries. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 23.4%, which was significantly higher than the 14.4% mortality associated with methicillin-sensitive SAB (P <0.0001). With the exception of the beta-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-sensitive S.aureus remains rare. However in addition to the beta-lactams, approximately 50 of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 15% were resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. When applying the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints, teicoplanin resistance was detected in 2 S. aureus isolates. Resistance was not detected for vancomycin or linezolid. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials was largely attributable to 2 healthcare-associated MRSA clones; ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) has become the predominant healthcare associated clone in Australia. Sixty per cent of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community-associated (CA) clones. Although polyclonal, almost 44% of community-associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA) and ST1-IV [2B] (WA1). CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-V [5C2&5] (WA84) clone, has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. As CA-MRSA is well established in the Australian community it is important that antimicrobial resistance patterns in community and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.