Reggio nell'Emilia, Italy
Reggio nell'Emilia, Italy

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Pekmezci M.,University of California at San Francisco | Vlodavsky E.,Pathology Institute | Perry A.,University of California at San Francisco
Clinical Neuropathology | Year: 2014

Central nervous system hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an uncommon extraaxial tumor with controversial terminology, histogenesis, and grading. Herein, we report a unique example in a 64-year-old woman with a 3.2 cm extra-axial right frontal lobe mass. Histologic sections showed an HPC with increased mitotic activity and elevated proliferation index, interspersed with gland-like spaces lined by epithelioid cells with apical blebs and filled with proteinaceous material. Both spindled and epithelioid cells expressed BCL-2, CD99, and nuclear STAT6, but were negative for CD34, AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, and epithelial membrane antigen. A diagnosis of anaplastic HPC with pseudoglandular spaces was rendered. To our knowledge, this is the first pathologically and molecularly well-documented example in the literature. This pattern has only been reported once in 1983 and is not widely known. Differential diagnosis included synovial sarcoma, anaplastic meningioma with epithelial metaplasia, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and metastatic carcinosarcoma. Accurate diagnosis depends on recognition of this pattern, along with appropriate immunohistochemical and molecular work-up. © 2014 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle.


Schneider C.,ETH Zurich | Schneider C.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Nobs S.P.,ETH Zurich | Kurrer M.,Pathology Institute | And 3 more authors.
Nature Immunology | Year: 2014

Tissue-resident macrophages constitute heterogeneous populations with unique functions and distinct gene-expression signatures. While it has been established that they originate mostly from embryonic progenitor cells, the signals that induce a characteristic tissue-specific differentiation program remain unknown. We found that the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ 3 determined the perinatal differentiation and identity of alveolar macrophages (AMs). In contrast, PPAR-γ 3 was dispensable for the development of macrophages located in the peritoneum, liver, brain, heart, kidneys, intestine and fat. Transcriptome analysis of the precursors of AMs from newborn mice showed that PPAR-γ 3 conferred a unique signature, including several transcription factors and genes associated with the differentiation and function of AMs. Expression of PPAR-γ 3 in fetal lung monocytes was dependent on the cytokine GM-CSF. Therefore, GM-CSF has a lung-specific role in the perinatal development of AMs through the induction of PPAR-γ 3 in fetal monocytes. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Mourra N.,Hospital St Antoine | Jouret-Mourin A.,St Luc Hospital | Lazure T.,Kremlin Bicetre Hospital | Audard V.,Cochin Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2012

Context.-Unlike the small bowel, the colorectal mucosa is seldom the site of metastatic disease. Objective.-To determine the incidence of truly colorectal metastases, and subsequent clinicopathologic findings, in a substantial colorectal cancer population collected from 7 European centers. Design.-During the last decade, 10 365 patients were identified as having colorectal malignant tumors, other than systemic diseases. Data collected included patient demographics, clinical symptoms, treatment, the presence of metastases in other sites, disease-free interval, follow-up, and overall survival. All secondary tumors resulting from direct invasion from malignant tumors of the contiguous organs were excluded, as well as those resulting from lymph node metastases or peritoneal seeding. Results.-Only 35 patients were included (10 men) with a median age of 59 years. They presented with obstruction, bleeding, abdominal pain, or perforation. The leading source of metastases was the breast, followed by melanoma. Metastases were synchronous in 3 cases. The mean disease-free interval for the remaining cases was 6.61 years. Surgical resection was performed in 28 cases. Follow-up was available for 26 patients; all had died, with a mean survival time of 10.67 months (range, 1-41 months). Conclusions.-Colorectal metastases are exceptional (0.338%) with the breast as a leading source of metastases; they still represent a late stage of disease and reflect a poor prognosis. Therefore, the pathologist should be alert for the possibility of secondary tumors when studying large bowel biopsies. Any therapy is usually palliative, but our results suggest that prolonged survival after surgery and complementary therapy can be obtained in some patients.


Schneider C.,ETH Zurich | Nobs S.P.,ETH Zurich | Heer A.K.,ETH Zurich | Kurrer M.,Pathology Institute | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2014

Alveolar macrophages (AM) are critical for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. However, a definitive role of AM in viral infections remains unclear. We here report that AM play a key role in survival to influenza and vaccinia virus infection by maintaining lung function and thereby protecting from asphyxiation. Absence of AM in GM-CSF-deficient (Csf2-/-) mice or selective AM depletion in wild-type mice resulted in impaired gas exchange and fatal hypoxia associated with severe morbidity to influenza virus infection, while viral clearance was affected moderately. Virus-induced morbidity was far more severe in Csf2-/- mice lacking AM, as compared to Batf3-deficient mice lacking CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs. Csf2-/- mice showed intact anti-viral CD8+ T cell responses despite slightly impaired CD103+ DC development. Importantly, selective reconstitution of AM development in Csf2rb-/- mice by neonatal transfer of wild-type AM progenitors prevented severe morbidity and mortality, demonstrating that absence of AM alone is responsible for disease severity in mice lacking GM-CSF or its receptor. In addition, CD11c-Cre/Ppargfl/fl mice with a defect in AM but normal adaptive immunity showed increased morbidity and lung failure to influenza virus. Taken together, our results suggest a superior role of AM compared to CD103+ DCs in protection from acute influenza and vaccinia virus infection-induced morbidity and mortality. © 2014 Schneider et al.


Kazarin O.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Ilan N.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Naroditzky I.,Pathology Institute | Ben-Itzhak O.,Pathology Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Background: Heparanase is an endo-β-D-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans, resulting in the disassembly of the extracellular matrix. Heparanase has a central role in the development of various tumors, and its expression has been associated with increased tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis, but there is insufficient information about the function of heparanase in sarcomas. Study aims. 1) To evaluate heparanase levels in adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS); 2) To examine the correlation between heparanase levels and pathological and clinical parameters and treatment outcome. Methods. Pathological specimens of primary or metastatic STS were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis applying an anti-heparanase antibody. The clinical and the pathological data, together with the data of heparanase levels, were evaluated in a logistic regression model for tumor recurrence and survival. Results: One hundred and one samples were examined, 55 from primary tumors and 46 from metastatic sites. A high expression of heparanase was observed in 29 (52.7%) and 22 specimens (47.8%), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between heparanase expressions in the primary vs. metastatic sites of tumors. Moreover, no correlation was observed between heparanase staining and tumor aggressiveness, tumor recurrence or patient survival in various groups of patients. Conclusion: Expression of heparanase was observed in 50% of the STS, in various histological subtypes. A larger study with homogenous groups of specific sub-types of STS or stages of disease is required to validate over-expression of heparanase as a marker of disease aggressiveness. © 2014 Kazarin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Brazowski E.,Pathology Institute | Cohen S.,Tel Aviv University | Yaron A.,Tel Aviv University | Filip I.,Pathology Institute | Eisenthal A.,Pathology Institute
Pathobiology | Year: 2010

Objective: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the number of 2 lymphoid subpopulations, CD8 + cells and FOXP3 +, in the duodenum mucosa from pediatric celiac patients. Methods: Tissue sections prepared from paraffin-embedded biopsies of the descending duodenum of 61 celiac patients with Marsh grade 1 (M1), M2 and M3 disease and biopsies from 21 age-matched non-celiac (NC) patients were immunohistostained with anti-CD8 or FOXP3 antibodies. Results: The histological Marsh grade correlated with the mean number of FOXP3 + cells in the lamina propria (LP) mucosa (8.9 ± 1.1, 6.8 ± 2.4, 24.5 ± 2.6 and 31.1 ± 2.8 for NC, M1, M2 and M3 biopsies, respectively; p < 0.001). Using a cutoff point of 15 cells, 95% of NC and 88% of M1 biopsies had a mean of <15 FOXP3 + cells compared with 14% for M2 and 13% for M3 biopsies. The number of FOXP3 + cells in the epithelial mucosa also correlated with transglutaminase type 2 serum levels from the celiac patients. Unlike the FOXP3 + cells, CD8 + lymphocytes were present in both LP and surface epithelial mucosa and significantly different only in the LP mucosa of the M2 and M3 groups. Conclusion: The number of FOXP3 + cells is substantially increased in the mucosa of celiac patients at advanced stages. Characterization of the activity of these cells in celiac and in other inflammatory bowel diseases will enable us to understand the significance of these cells in celiac disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Gershman E.,Pulmonary Institute | Fruchter O.,Pulmonary Institute | Benjamin F.,Pulmonary Institute | Nader A.R.,Pulmonary Institute | And 4 more authors.
Respiration | Year: 2015

Background: Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) which is performed with metal forceps (forceps TBB) has been accepted as a useful technique in establishing diagnoses of diffuse lung diseases (DLDs). The use of cryoprobes to obtain alveolar tissue (cryo-TBB) is a new method which is currently used by our institute as well as others with excellent results. Objectives: To assess the safety of cryo-TBB compared with conventional forceps TBB. Methods: We performed a retrospective data evaluation of 300 consecutive patients who underwent cryo-TBB between January 2012 and April 2014 and compared them with historical cases treated with forceps TBB between 2010 and 2012. The results of both diagnostic modalities were compared based on pathological reports. The major complications (significant bleeding and pneumothorax) were compared, along with postprocedural hospitalization. Results: Pneumothorax was observed in 15 cases (4.95%) treated with cryo-TBB versus 9 cases (3.15%) treated with forceps TBB, with no significant difference (p = 0.303). The insertion of a chest tube was necessary in 6 (2%) and 4 (1.3%) of the cases having undergone cryo-TBB or forceps TBB, respectively (p = 0.8). In the cryo-TBB group, bleeding was encountered in 16 cases (5.2%), and it occurred in 13 cases (4.5%) of the forceps TBB group, with no significant difference in rates (p = 0.706). Also, there was no significant difference in hospital admission rates between the groups [cryo-TBB: 10 (3.3%); forceps TBB: 4 (1.44%); p = 0.181]. The safety profile of cryo- and forceps TBB remained the same even when stratified according to indications for TBB, i.e. immunocompromised hosts, patients after lung transplantation and those with DLDs. Conclusion: In patients with DLDs, cryo-TBB is as safe as forceps TBB. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


De Leval L.,Pathology Institute | Gaulard P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Histopathology | Year: 2011

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) represent a heterogeneous group of more than 20 neoplastic entities derived from mature T cells and natural killer (NK) cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. With few exceptions these malignancies, which may present as disseminated, predominantly extranodal or cutaneous, or predominantly nodal diseases, are clinically aggressive and have a dismal prognosis. Their diagnosis and classification is hampered by several difficulties, including a significant morphological and immunophenotypic overlap across different entities, and the lack of characteristic genetic alterations for most of them. Although there is increasing evidence that the cell of origin is a major determinant for the delineation of several PTCL entities, however, the cellular derivation of most entities remains poorly characterized and/or may be heterogeneous. The complexity of the biology and pathophysiology of PTCLs has been only partly deciphered. In recent years, novel insights have been gained from genome-wide profiling analyses. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the pathobiological features of peripheral NK/T-cell neoplasms, with a focus on selected disease entities manifesting as tissue infiltrates primarily in extranodal sites and lymph nodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.


Ben-Ishay O.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Person B.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Eran B.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Hershkovitz D.,Pathology Institute | Duek D.S.,Rambam Health Care Campus
Techniques in Coloproctology | Year: 2011

Rectal duplication cyst is a rare entity that accounts for approximately 4% of all alimentary tract duplications. To the best of our knowledge, the presented cases are the first reports in the English literature of rectal duplication cyst resection by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. We present two patients; both are 41-year-old women with a palpable rectal mass. Workup revealed a submucosal posterior mass that was then resected by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. The pathology report described cystic lesions with squamous and columnar epithelium and segments of smooth muscle. These findings were compatible with rectal duplication cyst. Our limited experience showed good results with minimal morbidity and mortality for resection of rectal duplication cysts of limited size with no evidence of malignancy. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Raychaudhuri B.,Neurological Institute | Ireland P.R.J.,Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute | Ko J.,Pathology Institute | Rini B.,Taussig Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2011

To assess the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of patients with glioma and to define their heterogeneity and their immunosuppressive function. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy control subjects and from patients with newly diagnosed glioma were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and T cells assessed for intracellular expression of interferon (IFN)-γ. Antibody staining of PBMCs from glioma patients and healthy donors (CD33, HLADR, CD15, and CD14) followed by 4-color flow cytometry analysis-defined MDSC levels in the peripheral blood. To assess the role of MDSCs in suppressing T cell IFNγ production, PBMCs were depleted of MDSCs using anti-CD33 and anti-CD15 antibodycoated beads prior to T cell stimulation. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assays were used to assess plasma arginase activity and the level of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Patients with glioblastoma have increased MDSC counts (CD33+HLADR2) in their blood that are composed of neutrophilic (CD15+; >60%), lineagenegative (CD15-CD14-; 31%), and monocytic (CD14+; 6%) subsets. After stimulation, T cells from patients with glioblastoma had suppressed IFN-γ production when compared with healthy, age-matched donor T cells. Removal of MDSCs from the PBMCs with anti-CD33/CD15-coated beads significantly restored T cell function. Significant increases in arginase activity and G-CSF levels were observed in plasma specimens obtained from patients with glioblastoma. The accumulation of MDSCs in peripheral blood in patients with glioma likely promotes T cell immune suppression that is observed in this patient population. Increased plasma levels of arginase and G-CSF may relate to MDSC suppressor function and MDSC expansion, respectively, in patients with glioma. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved.

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