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Reggio nell'Emilia, Italy

Aharon O.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Abdulhalim I.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Arnon O.,Burn Unit | Rosenberg L.,Burn Unit | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2011

Skin cancer diagnosis depends not only on histopathological examination but also on visual inspection before and after the excision of suspected lesion. Neoplasm is accompanied with changes in birefringence of collagen, pleomorphicity, and hyperchromatic state of epithelial nuclei. These phenomena can be measured by spectral and polarization changes of light backscattered by the examined tissue. A new differential spectropolarimetric system is proposed using liquid crystal devices, one as a tunable filter and the other as a polarization rotator, both operating at wide spectral ranges from the visible to the near-infrared. Since collagens fibrils texture orientation depends on its location in the skin and since it is not well organized, our system scans the bipolarization states by continuously rotating the linearly polarized light incident on a skin lesion, and collecting differential contrasts between sequenced images when simultaneously averaging the statistical readout of a video camera. This noninvasive method emphasizes areas on skin where the neoplasm, or tumor, minimizes the statistical polarization change of the scattered light from the lesion. The module can be considered as an assistant tool for epiluminescence microscopy. Images of skin tumors were captured in vivo before the patients having their surgery and compared to histopathological results. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Schneider C.,ETH Zurich | Schneider C.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Nobs S.P.,ETH Zurich | Kurrer M.,Pathology Institute | And 3 more authors.
Nature Immunology | Year: 2014

Tissue-resident macrophages constitute heterogeneous populations with unique functions and distinct gene-expression signatures. While it has been established that they originate mostly from embryonic progenitor cells, the signals that induce a characteristic tissue-specific differentiation program remain unknown. We found that the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ 3 determined the perinatal differentiation and identity of alveolar macrophages (AMs). In contrast, PPAR-γ 3 was dispensable for the development of macrophages located in the peritoneum, liver, brain, heart, kidneys, intestine and fat. Transcriptome analysis of the precursors of AMs from newborn mice showed that PPAR-γ 3 conferred a unique signature, including several transcription factors and genes associated with the differentiation and function of AMs. Expression of PPAR-γ 3 in fetal lung monocytes was dependent on the cytokine GM-CSF. Therefore, GM-CSF has a lung-specific role in the perinatal development of AMs through the induction of PPAR-γ 3 in fetal monocytes. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ben-Ishay O.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Person B.,Colorectal Service | Eran B.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Hershkovitz D.,Pathology Institute | Duek D.S.,Colorectal Service
Techniques in Coloproctology | Year: 2011

Rectal duplication cyst is a rare entity that accounts for approximately 4% of all alimentary tract duplications. To the best of our knowledge, the presented cases are the first reports in the English literature of rectal duplication cyst resection by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. We present two patients; both are 41-year-old women with a palpable rectal mass. Workup revealed a submucosal posterior mass that was then resected by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. The pathology report described cystic lesions with squamous and columnar epithelium and segments of smooth muscle. These findings were compatible with rectal duplication cyst. Our limited experience showed good results with minimal morbidity and mortality for resection of rectal duplication cysts of limited size with no evidence of malignancy. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Raychaudhuri B.,Neurological Institute | Ireland P.R.J.,Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute | Ko J.,Pathology Institute | Rini B.,Taussig Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2011

To assess the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of patients with glioma and to define their heterogeneity and their immunosuppressive function. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy control subjects and from patients with newly diagnosed glioma were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and T cells assessed for intracellular expression of interferon (IFN)-γ. Antibody staining of PBMCs from glioma patients and healthy donors (CD33, HLADR, CD15, and CD14) followed by 4-color flow cytometry analysis-defined MDSC levels in the peripheral blood. To assess the role of MDSCs in suppressing T cell IFNγ production, PBMCs were depleted of MDSCs using anti-CD33 and anti-CD15 antibodycoated beads prior to T cell stimulation. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assays were used to assess plasma arginase activity and the level of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Patients with glioblastoma have increased MDSC counts (CD33+HLADR2) in their blood that are composed of neutrophilic (CD15+; >60%), lineagenegative (CD15-CD14-; 31%), and monocytic (CD14+; 6%) subsets. After stimulation, T cells from patients with glioblastoma had suppressed IFN-γ production when compared with healthy, age-matched donor T cells. Removal of MDSCs from the PBMCs with anti-CD33/CD15-coated beads significantly restored T cell function. Significant increases in arginase activity and G-CSF levels were observed in plasma specimens obtained from patients with glioblastoma. The accumulation of MDSCs in peripheral blood in patients with glioma likely promotes T cell immune suppression that is observed in this patient population. Increased plasma levels of arginase and G-CSF may relate to MDSC suppressor function and MDSC expansion, respectively, in patients with glioma. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved.

De Leval L.,Pathology Institute | Gaulard P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Histopathology | Year: 2011

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) represent a heterogeneous group of more than 20 neoplastic entities derived from mature T cells and natural killer (NK) cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. With few exceptions these malignancies, which may present as disseminated, predominantly extranodal or cutaneous, or predominantly nodal diseases, are clinically aggressive and have a dismal prognosis. Their diagnosis and classification is hampered by several difficulties, including a significant morphological and immunophenotypic overlap across different entities, and the lack of characteristic genetic alterations for most of them. Although there is increasing evidence that the cell of origin is a major determinant for the delineation of several PTCL entities, however, the cellular derivation of most entities remains poorly characterized and/or may be heterogeneous. The complexity of the biology and pathophysiology of PTCLs has been only partly deciphered. In recent years, novel insights have been gained from genome-wide profiling analyses. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the pathobiological features of peripheral NK/T-cell neoplasms, with a focus on selected disease entities manifesting as tissue infiltrates primarily in extranodal sites and lymph nodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

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