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Torrance, CA, United States

Mikhail F.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Heerema N.A.,Ohio State University | Rao K.W.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Burnside R.D.,Pathology Holdings | And 2 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine

Disclaimer: These American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines are developed primarily as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these standards and guidelines is voluntary and does not necessarily ensure a successful medical outcome. These standards and guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinical laboratory geneticist should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. Clinical laboratory geneticists are encouraged to document in the patient's record the rationale for the use of a particular procedure or test, whether or not it is in conformance with these standards and guidelines. They also are advised to take notice of the date any particular guideline was adopted, and to consider other relevant medical and scientific information that becomes available after that date. It also would be prudent to consider whether intellectual property interests may restrict the performance of certain tests and other procedures. Cytogenetic analyses of hematological neoplasms are performed to detect and characterize clonal chromosomal abnormalities that have important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. At the time of diagnosis, cytogenetic abnormalities assist in the diagnosis of such disorders and can provide important prognostic information. At the time of relapse, cytogenetic analysis can be used to confirm recurrence of the original neoplasm, detect clonal disease evolution, or uncover a new unrelated neoplastic process. This section deals specifically with the standards and guidelines applicable to chromosome studies of neoplastic blood and bone marrow-acquired chromosomal abnormalities. This updated Section E6.1-6.4 has been incorporated into and supersedes the previous Section E6 in Section E: Clinical Cytogenetics of the 2009 Edition (Revised 01/2010), American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories. © 2016 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Source

Chromosome 22q11.21 contains a cluster of low-copy repeats (LCRs), referred to as LCR22A-H, that mediate meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination, resulting in either deletion or duplication of various intervals in the region. The deletion of the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome interval LCR22A-D is the most common recurrent microdeletion in humans, with an estimated incidence of ∼1:4,000 births. Deletion of other intervals in 22q11.21 have also been described, but the literature is often confusing, as the terms 'proximal', 'nested', 'distal', and 'atypical' have all been used to describe various of the other intervals. Individuals with deletions tend to have features with widely variable expressivity, even among families. This review concisely delineates each interval and classifies the reported literature accordingly. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Yelavarthi K.,Indiana University | Cabral H.,Pathology Holdings | Wilson G.N.,KinderGenome Pediatric Genetics | Rohena L.,San Antonio Military Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A

Deletions in the middle portion of 11q are not as well described in the literature as terminal 11q deletions that result in Jacobsen syndrome. One confounding factor in the older literature is that the G-banding pattern of 11q13q21 is very similar to 11q21q23. The advent of fluorescence in situ hybridization and later microarray technologies have allowed for a better resolution of many of these deletions, but genotype-phenotype correlations are still difficult since these deletions are rare events. We present five individuals who presented with developmental delays with de novo 11q22.2q23.3 deletions. Deletions were observed by standard G-banded chromosome analysis with clarification of breakpoints and gene content by SNP microarray analysis. Of note, all individuals had identical distal breakpoints. All deletions include SDHD, which is implicated in hereditary paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma, for which the patients will need to be monitored in adulthood. In spite of the large deletions of 8.6Mb (Patients 1 and 3), 13.98Mb (Patient 2), and 12.6Mb (Patients 4 and 5) all patients show somewhat mild intellectual disability and dysmorphism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Riley K.N.,Emory University | Riley K.N.,Pathology Holdings | Catalano L.M.,Emory University | Bernat J.A.,University of Michigan | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A

Copy number variation (CNV) in the long arm of chromosome 2 has been implicated in developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), congenital anomalies, and psychiatric disorders. Here we describe 14 new subjects with recurrent deletions and duplications of chromosome 2q11.2, 2q13, and 2q11.2-2q13. Though diverse phenotypes are associated with these CNVs, some common features have emerged. Subjects with 2q11.2 deletions often exhibit DD, speech delay, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), whereas those with 2q11.2 duplications have DD, gastroesophageal reflux, and short stature. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), hypotonia, dysmorphic features, and abnormal head size are common in those with 2q13 deletions. In the 2q13 duplication cohort, we report dysmorphic features, DD, and abnormal head size. Two individuals with large duplications spanning 2q11.2-2q13 have dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and DD. This compilation of clinical features associated with 2q CNVs provides information that will be useful for healthcare providers and for families of affected children. However, the reduced penetrance and variable expressivity associated with these recurrent CNVs makes genetic counseling and prediction of outcomes challenging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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