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Shvedova A.A.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Kagan V.E.,University of Pittsburgh
Journal of Internal Medicine

Nano-sized materials and nano-scaled processes are widely used in many industries. They are being actively introduced as diagnostic and therapeutic in biomedicine and they are found in numerous consumer products. The small size of nanoparticles, comparable with molecular machinery of cells, may affect normal physiological functions of cells and cause cytotoxicity. Their toxic potential cannot be extrapolated from studies of larger particles due to unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials. Therefore, the use of nanomaterials may pose unknown risks to human health and the environment. This review discusses several important issues relevant to pulmonary toxicity of nanoparticles, especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), their direct cytotoxic effects, their ability to cause an inflammatory response, and induce oxidative stress upon pharyngeal aspiration or inhalation. Further, recognition and engulfment of nanotubes by macrophages as they relate to phagocytosis and bio-distribution of nanotubes in tissues and circulation are discussed. The immunosuppressive effects of CNT and their significance in increased sensitivity of exposed individuals to microbial infections are summarized. Finally, data on biodegradation of SWCNT by oxidative enzymes of inflammatory cells are presented in lieu of their persistence and distribution in the body. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Shurin M.R.,University of Pittsburgh | Yanamala N.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Kisin E.R.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Tkach A.V.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | And 11 more authors.
ACS Nano

Several lines of evidence indicate that exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) is able to modify airway immune responses, thus facilitating the development of respiratory diseases. Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising carbonaceous nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties, envisioned for a multitude of medical and industrial applications. In this paper, we determined how exposure to GO modulates the allergic pulmonary response. Using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma, we revealed that GO, given at the sensitization stage, augmented airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling in the form of goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle hypertrophy. At the same time, the levels of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were reduced in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in GO-exposed mice. Exposure to GO during sensitization with OVA decreased eosinophil accumulation and increased recruitment of macrophages in BAL fluid. In line with the cytokine profiles, sensitization with OVA in the presence of GO stimulated the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and down-regulated the levels of IgE and IgG1. Moreover, exposure to GO increased the macrophage production of the mammalian chitinases, CHI3L1 and AMCase, whose expression is associated with asthma. Finally, molecular modeling has suggested that GO may directly interact with chitinase, affecting AMCase activity, which has been directly proven in our studies. Thus, these data show that GO exposure attenuates Th2 immune response in a model of OVA-induced asthma, but leads to potentiation of airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness, with the induction of mammalian chitinases. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Yanamala N.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Farcas M.T.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Hatfield M.K.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Kisin E.R.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | And 4 more authors.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering

The use of cellulose as building blocks for the development of novel functional materials is rapidly growing. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), with advantageous chemical and mechanical properties, have gained prominence in a number of applications, such as in nanofillers in polymer composites, building materials, cosmetics, food, and the drug industry. Therefore, it becomes critical to evaluate the potential health effects associated with CNC exposures. The objective of this study was to compare pulmonary outcomes caused by exposure of C57BL/6 mice to two different processed forms of CNC derived from wood, i.e., CNCS (10 wt %; gel/suspension) and CNCP (powder), and compare to asbestos induced responses. Pharyngeal aspiration with CNCS and CNCP was found to facilitate innate inflammatory response assessed by an increase in leukocytes and eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Biomarkers of tissue damage were elevated to a higher extent in mice exposed to CNCP. Compared to CNCP, CNCS caused a significant increase in the accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines was higher in the lungs after CNCS treatments. Most importantly, CNCP materials were significantly longer than CNCS. Taken together, our data suggests that particle morphology and nanosize dimensions of CNCs, regardless of the same source, may be critical factors affecting the type of innate immune inflammatory responses. Because various processes have been developed for producing highly sophisticated nanocellulose materials, detailed assessment of specific health outcomes with respect to their physical-structural-chemical properties is highly warranted. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

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