Pathology and Physiology Research Branch

Morgantown, WV, United States

Pathology and Physiology Research Branch

Morgantown, WV, United States
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Andon F.T.,Karolinska Institutet | Kapralov A.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Yanamala N.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Feng W.,University of Pittsburgh | And 14 more authors.
Small | Year: 2013

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O 2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials. Human eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is able to degrade SWCNTs in vitro in the presence of H2O2. EPO is one of the major oxidant-generating enzymes present in human lungs during inflammatory states. The biodegradation of SWCNTs is evidenced also in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. These results are relevant to potential respiratory exposure to carbon nanotubes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Mercer R.R.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Mercer R.R.,West Virginia University | Scabilloni J.F.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Hubbs A.F.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | And 6 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2013

Background: Inhalation exposure studies of mice were conducted to determine if multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) distribute to the tracheobronchial lymphatics, parietal pleura, respiratory musculature and/or extrapulmonary organs. Male C57BL/6 J mice were exposed in a whole-body inhalation system to a 5 mg/m3 MWCNT aerosol for 5 hours/day for 12 days (4 times/week for 3 weeks, lung burden 28.1 ug/lung). At 1 day and 336 days after the 12 day exposure period, mice were anesthetized and lungs, lymph nodes and extrapulmonary tissues were preserved by whole body vascular perfusion of paraformaldehyde while the lungs were inflated with air. Separate, clean-air control groups were studied at 1 day and 336 days post-exposure. Sirius Red stained sections from lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, diaphragm, chest wall, heart, brain, kidney and liver were analyzed. Enhanced darkfield microscopy and morphometric methods were used to detect and count MWCNT in tissue sections. Counts in tissue sections were expressed as number of MWCNT per g of tissue and as a percentage of total lung burden (Mean ± S.E., N = 8 mice per group). MWCNT burden in tracheobronchial lymph nodes was determined separately based on the volume density in the lymph nodes relative to the volume density in the lungs. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to examine MWCNT structure in the various tissues.Results: Tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found to contain 1.08 and 7.34 percent of the lung burden at 1 day and 336 days post-exposure, respectively. Although agglomerates account for approximately 54% of lung burden, only singlet MWCNT were observed in the diaphragm, chest wall, liver, kidney, heart and brain. At one day post exposure, the average length of singlet MWCNT in liver and kidney, was comparable to that of singlet MWCNT in the lungs 8.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.5 ± 0.4 um, respectively. On average, there were 15,371 and 109,885 fibers per gram in liver, kidney, heart and brain at 1 day and 336 days post-exposure, respectively. The burden of singlet MWCNT in the lymph nodes, diaphragm, chest wall and extrapulmonary organs at 336 days post-exposure was significantly higher than at 1 day post-exposure.Conclusions: Inhaled MWCNT, which deposit in the lungs, are transported to the parietal pleura, the respiratory musculature, liver, kidney, heart and brain in a singlet form and accumulate with time following exposure. The tracheobronchial lymph nodes contain high levels of MWCNT following exposure and further accumulate over nearly a year to levels that are a significant fraction of the lung burden 1 day post-exposure. © 2013 Mercer et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wang D.,West Virginia University | Wang D.,Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute | Zheng W.,Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute | Zheng W.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch
Brain Research | Year: 2015

Previous studies have shown dietary cholesterol can enhance learning but retard memory which may be partly due to increased cholesterol levels in hippocampus and reduced afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude of hippocampal CA1 neurons. This study explored the dose-dependent effect of dietary cholesterol on synaptic plasticity of rabbit hippocampal CA1 neurons and spine morphology, the postsynaptic structures responsible for synaptic plasticity. Field potential recordings revealed a low concentration of dietary cholesterol increased long-term potentiation (LTP) expression while high concentrations produced a pronounced reduction in LTP expression. Dietary cholesterol facilitated basal synaptic transmission but did not influence presynaptic function. DiI staining showed dietary cholesterol induced alterations in dendrite spine morphology characterized by increased mushroom spine density and decreased thin spine density, two kinds of dendritic spines that may be linked to memory consolidation and learning acquisition. Dietary cholesterol also modulated the geometric measures of mushroom spines. Therefore, dietary cholesterol dose-dependently modulated both synaptic plasticity and dendrite spine morphologies of hippocampal CA1 neurons that could mediate learning and memory changes previously seen to result from feeding a cholesterol diet. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Murray A.R.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Murray A.R.,West Virginia University | Kisin E.R.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Tkach A.V.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | And 8 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2012

Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) are allotropes of carbon featuring fibrous morphology. The dimensions and high aspect ratio of CNT and CNF have prompted the comparison with naturally occurring asbestos fibers which are known to be extremely pathogenic. While the toxicity and hazardous outcomes elicited by airborne exposure to single-walled CNT or asbestos have been widely reported, very limited data are currently available describing adverse effects of respirable CNF.Results: Here, we assessed pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress markers and systemic immune responses to respirable CNF in comparison to single-walled CNT (SWCNT) and asbestos. Pulmonary inflammatory and fibrogenic responses to CNF, SWCNT and asbestos varied depending upon the agglomeration state of the particles/fibers. Foci of granulomatous lesions and collagen deposition were associated with dense particle-like SWCNT agglomerates, while no granuloma formation was found following exposure to fiber-like CNF or asbestos. The average thickness of the alveolar connective tissue - a marker of interstitial fibrosis - was increased 28 days post SWCNT, CNF or asbestos exposure. Exposure to SWCNT, CNF or asbestos resulted in oxidative stress evidenced by accumulations of 4-HNE and carbonylated proteins in the lung tissues. Additionally, local inflammatory and fibrogenic responses were accompanied by modified systemic immunity, as documented by decreased proliferation of splenic T cells ex vivo on day 28 post exposure. The accuracies of assessments of effective surface area for asbestos, SWCNT and CNF (based on geometrical analysis of their agglomeration) versus estimates of mass dose and number of particles were compared as predictors of toxicological outcomes.Conclusions: We provide evidence that effective surface area along with mass dose rather than specific surface area or particle number are significantly correlated with toxicological responses to carbonaceous fibrous nanoparticles. Therefore, they could be useful dose metrics for risk assessment and management. © 2012 Murray et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kisin E.R.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Yanamala N.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Farcas M.T.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Gutkin D.W.,University of Pittsburgh | And 5 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

Altering the fuel source from petroleum-based ultralow sulfur diesel to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a sustainable choice for controlling exposures to particulate material. As the exhaust of biodiesel/diesel blends is composed of a combination of combustion products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatty acid methyl esters, we hypothesize that 50% biodiesel/diesel blend (BD50) exposure could induce harmful outcomes because of its ability to trigger oxidative damage. Here, adverse effects were compared in murine male reproductive organs after pharyngeal aspiration with particles generated by engine fueled with BD50 or neat petroleum diesel (D100). When compared with D100, exposure to BD50 significantly altered sperm integrity, including concentration, motility, and morphological abnormalities, as well as increasing testosterone levels in testes during the time course postexposure. Serum level of luteinizing hormone was significantly depleted only after BD50 exposure. Moreover, we observed that exposure to BD50 significantly increased sperm DNA fragmentation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and testes on Day 7 postexposure when compared with D100. Histological evaluation of testes sections from BD50 exposure indicated more noticeable interstitial edema, degenerating spermatocytes, and dystrophic seminiferous tubules with arrested spermatogenesis. Significant differences in the level of oxidative stress assessed by accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and depletion of glutathione were detected on exposure to respirable BD50 and D100. Taken together, these results indicate that exposure of mice to inhalable BD50 caused more pronounced adverse effects on male reproductive function than diesel. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Golokhvast K.S.,Far Eastern Federal University | Shvedova A.A.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Shvedova A.A.,West Virginia University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Galvanic manufacturing is widely employed and can be found in nearly every average city in Russia. The release and accumulation of different metals (Me), depending on the technology used can be found in the vicinities of galvanic plants. Under the environmental protection act in Russia, the regulations for galvanic manufacturing do not include the regulations and safety standards for ambient ultrafine and nanosized particulate matter (PM). To assess whether Me nanoparticles (NP) are among environmental pollutants caused by galvanic manufacturing, the level of Me NP were tested in urban snow samples collected around galvanic enterprises in two cities. Employing transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, we found that the size distribution of tested Me NP was within 10-120 nm range. This is the first study to report that Me NP of Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Ni, Cu, and Zn were detected around galvanic shop settings. © 2014 Golokhvast, Shvedova.


Zeidler-Erdely P.C.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Zeidler-Erdely P.C.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | Battelli L.A.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Salmen-Muniz R.,Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2011

Stainless steel welding produces fumes that contain carcinogenic metals. Therefore, welders may be at risk for the development of lung cancer, but animal data are inadequate in this regard. Our main objective was to examine lung tumor production and histopathological alterations in lung-tumor-susceptible (A/J) and -resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) welding fume. Male mice were exposed to vehicle or MMA-SS welding fume (20 mg/kg) by pharyngeal aspiration once per month for 4 mo. At 78 wk postexposure, gross tumor counts and histopathological changes were assessed and metal analysis was done on extrapulmonary tissue (aorta, heart, kidney, and liver). At 78 wk postexposure, gross lung tumor multiplicity and incidence were unremarkable in mice exposed to MMA-SS welding fume. Histopathology revealed that only the exposed A/J mice contained minimal amounts of MMA-SS welding fume in the lung and statistically increased lymphoid infiltrates and alveolar macrophages. A significant increase in tumor multiplicity in the A/J strain was observed at 78 wk. Metal analysis of extrapulmonary tissue showed that only the MMA-SS-exposed A/J mice had elevated levels of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn in kidney and Cr in liver. In conclusion, this study further supports that MMA-SS welding fume does not produce a significant tumorigenic response in an animal model, but may induce a chronic lung immune response. In addition, long-term extrapulmonary tissue alterations in metals in the susceptible A/J mouse suggest that the adverse effects of this fume might be cumulative. © Taylor & Francis Group.


Mercer R.R.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Mercer R.R.,West Virginia University | Hubbs A.F.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Scabilloni J.F.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | And 6 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2011

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are new manufactured nanomaterials with a wide spectrum of commercial applications. To address the hypothesis that MWCNTs cause persistent pulmonary pathology, C57BL/6J mice were exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg of MWCNTs (mean dimensions of 3.9 μm × 49 nm) or vehicle. Lungs were preserved at 1, 7, 28 and 56 days post- exposure to determine the potential regions and target cells for impact by MWCNT lung burden. Morphometric measurement of Sirius Red staining was used to assess the connective tissue response.Results: At 56 days post-exposure, 68.7 ± 3.9, 7.5 ± 1.9 and 22.0 ± 5.1 percent (mean ± SE, N = 8) of the MWCNT lung burden were in alveolar macrophages, alveolar tissue and granulomatous lesions, respectively. The subpleural tissues contained 1.6% of the MWCNT lung burden. No MWCNTs were found in the airways at 7, 28 or 56 days after aspiration The connective tissue in the alveolar interstitium demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness over time in the 80 μg exposure group (0.12 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.01, 0.16 ± 0.01 and 0.19 ± 0.01 μm for 1, 7, 28 and 56 days post-exposure (mean ± SE, N = 8)). Dose-response determined at 56 days post-exposure for the average thickness of connective tissue in alveolar septa was 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.14 ± .02, 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.16 ± 0.01 and 0.19 ± 0.01 μm (mean ± SE, N = 8) for vehicle, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg dose groups, respectively.Conclusions: The distribution of lung burden was predominately within alveolar macrophages with approximately 8% delivery to the alveolar septa, and a smaller but potentially significant burden to the subpleural tissues. Despite the relatively low fraction of the lung burden being delivered to the alveolar tissue, the average thickness of connective tissue in the alveolar septa was increased over vehicle control by 45% in the 40 μg and 73% in the 80 μg exposure groups. The results demonstrate that MWCNTs have the potential to produce a progressive, fibrotic response in the alveolar tissues of the lungs. However, the increases in connective tissue per μg dose of MWCNTs to the interstitium are significantly less than those previously found for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). © 2011 Mercer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mercer R.R.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Mercer R.R.,West Virginia University | Hubbs A.F.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | Scabilloni J.F.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch | And 6 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2010

Background: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are new manufactured nanomaterials with a wide spectrum of commercial applications. The durability and fiber-like dimensions (mean length 3.9 μm long × 49 nm diameter) of MWCNT suggest that these fibers may migrate to and have toxicity within the pleural region. To address whether the pleura received a significant and persistent exposure, C57BL/6J mice were exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg MWCNT or vehicle and the distribution of MWCNT penetrations determined at 1, 7, 28 and 56 days after exposure. Following lung fixation and sectioning, morphometric methods were used to determine the distribution of MWCNT and the number of MWCNT fiber penetrations of three barriers: alveolar epithelium (alveolar penetrations), the alveolar epithelium immediately adjacent to the pleura (subpleural tissue), and visceral pleural surface (intrapleural space).Results: At 1 day 18%, 81.6% and 0.6% of the MWCNT lung burden was in the airway, the alveolar, and the subpleural regions, respectively. There was an initial, high density of penetrations into the subpleural tissue and the intrapleural space one day following aspiration which appeared to decrease due to clearance by alveolar macrophages and/or lymphatics by day 7. However, the density of penetrations increased to steady state levels in the subpleural tissue and intrapleural from day 28 - 56. At day 56 approximately 1 in every 400 fiber penetrations was in either the subpleural tissue or intrapleural space. Numerous penetrations into macrophages in the alveolar airspaces throughout the lungs were demonstrated at all times but are not included in the counts presented.Conclusions: The results document that MWCNT penetrations of alveolar macrophages, the alveolar wall, and visceral pleura are both frequent and sustained. In addition, the findings demonstrate the need to investigate the chronic toxicity of MWCNT at these sites. © 2010 Mercer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Pathology and Physiology Research Branch and West Virginia University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physiological reports | Year: 2014

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is overexpressed in patients with inflammatory lung diseases, including virus infections. Airway surface liquid (ASL), which is regulated by epithelial cell ion transport, is essential for normal lung function. No information is available regarding the effect of NGF on ion transport of airway epithelium. To investigate whether NGF can affect ion transport, human primary air-interface cultured epithelial cells were placed in Ussing chambers to obtain transepithelial voltage (-7.1 3.4 mV), short-circuit current (Isc, 5.9 1.0 A), and transepithelial resistance (750 cm(2)), and to measure responses to ion transport inhibitors. Amiloride (apical, 3.5 10(-5) mol/L) decreased Isc by 55.3%. Apically applied NGF (1 ng/mL) reduced Isc by 5.3% in 5 min; basolaterally applied NGF had no effect. The response to amiloride was reduced (41.6%) in the presence of NGF. K-252a (10 nmol/L, apical) did not itself affect Na(+) transport, but it attenuated the NGF-induced reduction in Na(+) transport, indicating the participation of the trkA receptor in the NGF-induced reduction in Na(+) transport. PD-98059 (30 mol/L, apical and basolateral) did not itself affect Na(+) transport, but attenuated the NGF-induced reduction in Na(+) transport, indicating that trkA activated the Erk 1/2 signaling cascade. NGF stimulated phosphorylation of Erk 1/2 and the -subunit of ENaC. K-252a and PD-98059 inhibited these responses. NGF had no effect on Isc in the presence of apical nystatin (50 mol/L). These results indicate that NGF inhibits Na(+) transport through a trkA-Erk 1/2-activated signaling pathway linked to ENaC phosphorylation.

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