Santa Maria Nuova, Italy
Santa Maria Nuova, Italy

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Puech P.,University of Lille Nord de France | Rouviere O.,University of Lyon | Villers A.,Urology | Villers A.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 12 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To compare biopsy performance of two approaches for multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR)-targeted biopsy (TB) with that of extended systematic biopsy (SB) in prostate cancer (PCa) detection. Materials and Methods: This institutional review board-approved multicenter prospective study (May 2009 to January 2011) included 95 patients with informed consent who were suspected of having PCa, with a suspicious abnormality (target) at prebiopsy MR. Patients underwent 12-core SB and four-core TB with transrectal ultrasonographic (US) guidance, with two cores aimed visually (cognitive TB [TB-COG]) and two cores aimed using transrectal US-MR fusion software (fusionguided TB [TB-FUS]). SB and TB positivity for cancer and sampling quality (mean longest core cancer length, Gleason score) were compared. Clinically significant PCa was any 3 mm or greater core cancer length or any greater than 3 Gleason pattern for SB or any cancer length for TB. Statistical analysis included t test, paired x2 test, and k statistic. Primary end point (core cancer length) was calculated (paired t test). Results: Among 95 patients (median age, 65 years; mean prostatespecific antigen level, 10.05 ng/mL [10.05 mg/L]), positivity rate for PCa was 59% (n = 56) for SB and 69% (n = 66) for TB (P = .033); rate for clinically significant PCa was 52% (n = 49) for SB and 67% (n = 64) for TB (P = .0011). Cancer was diagnosed through TB in 1±patients (17%) with negative SB results. Mean longest core cancer lengths were 4.±mm for SB and 7.3 mm for TB (P , .0001). In 12 of 51 (24%) MR imaging targets with positive SB and TB results, TB led to Gleason score upgrading. In 79 MR imaging targets, positivity for cancer was 47% (n = 37) with TB-COG and 53% (n = 42) with TB-FUS (P = .16). Neither technique was superior for Gleason score assessment. Conclusion: Prebiopsy MR imaging combined with transrectal US-guided TB increases biopsy performance in detecting PCa, especially clinically significant PCa. No significant difference was observed between TB-FUS and TB-COG for TB guidance. © 2013 RSNA.


d'Assignies G.,University Paris Diderot | Tubach F.,Clinical Research Unit | Paradis V.,Pathology | Paradis V.,University Paris Diderot | And 4 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for identifying liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumor (NET) to those of T2- weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) and three-dimensional dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging, with surgical and histopathologic findings as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by institutional review board, and informed consent was waived. Fifty-nine patients with NETs (41 patients with 162 liver metastases, and 18 control subjects with no liver metastases) underwent MR imaging that included DW, T2-weighted FSE, and dynamic gadoliniumenhanced MR sequences. Images were retrospectively reviewed by two abdominal radiologists, independently, for the detection and characterization of liver metastases. MR findings were compared with histopathologic and intraoperative ultrasonography findings for metastasis on a lesion-by-lesion basis to determine the sensitivity of each MR sequence alone and combined. Specificity was calculated by using the control population. Interreader agreement for each MR sequence and McNemar test were also calculated. Results: There was excellent agreement between observers 1 and 2 for characterizing liver metastases at per-lesion analysis (k coefficient: 0.86-1.00). DW MR was more sensitive (observer 1: sensitivity, 71.6% [11±of 162], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%, 78.0%; observer 2: sensitivity, 71.0% [115 of 162], 95% CI: 63.6%, 77.4%) than T2-weighted FSE (observer 1: sensitivity, 55.6% [90 of 162], 95% CI: 47.9%, 63.0%; observer 2: sensitivity, 55.6% [90 of 162], 95% CI: 47.9%, 63.0%) and dynamic gadoliniumenhanced MR (observer 1: sensitivity, 47.5% [77 of 162], 95% CI: 34.0%, 55.2%; observer 2: sensitivity, 48.1% [78 of 162], 95% CI: 40.6%, 55.8%) (P < .001 for both, McNemar test). The specificity of these sequences ranged from 88.9% to 100% (DW MR vs T2-weighted FSE MR: P > .99, DW MR vs dynamic gadolinium- enhanced MR: P = .61, and T2-weighted FSE MR vs dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR: P = .61, McNemar test). Conclusion: DW MR imaging was more sensitive for the detection and characterization of liver metastases from NETs than T2-weighted FSE and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging and should be systematically performed. © 2013 RSNA.


Clementsen P.F.,Copenhagen University | Skov B.G.,Pathology | Vilmann P.,Copenhagen University | Krasnik M.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology | Year: 2014

Background: Mediastinoscopy is the gold standard for preoperative mediastinal staging of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. Since the development of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy via the trachea (EBUS-TBNA), this status has been challenged. The purpose of the study was to examine whether mediastinoscopy is necessary, when EBUS-TBNA is performed in a center with (1) a high level of expertise, (2) "bed side" microscopy by a pathologist, (3) general anesthesia, and (4) achievement of representative tissue from station 4R, 7 and 4L, that is, the same mediastinal stations that mediastinoscopy gives access to. Methods: A total of 95 consecutive patients with known or suspected lung cancer were referred for staging by EBUS-TBNA, which was performed as described.Results: Benign and malignant disease was found in the mediastinum of 6 and 13 patients, respectively. The remaining 76 patients were operated, resulting in 9 benign and 67 malignant diagnoses; spread was found to station 4R, 5, and 5 and 6 in 4 patients. The negative predictive value (NPV) was 63/67=0.94. However, if you exclude station 5 and 6, as they cannot be reached by neither EBUS nor mediastinoscopy, NPV was 66/ 67=0.99. The sensitivity was 0.76, and the specificity was 1.0. Conclusions: When EBUS-TBNA is performed under optimal conditions including general anesthesia and "bed side" microscopy performed by a pathologist resulting in representative biopsies from station 4R, 7, and 4L, the NPV is so high that mediastinoscopy seems unnecessary. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Angermair J.,Clinic for Oral Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery | Dettmar P.,Pathology | Linsenmann R.,Clinic for Oral Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery | Nolte D.,Clinic for Oral Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy | Year: 2015

This case report demonstrates the ablation of a dermal nevus using a diode laser in the esthetically very demanding facial area of the nasal tip. The clinical outcome shows good results and a high level of patient satisfaction. Due to effective wound granulation and healing, elaborate skin grafts could be avoided. The application of the contact laser ensures safe treatment in highly perfused areas thanks to haptic feedback and good coagulative effect. The method should therefore be considered as an alternative to other ablative procedures for benign lesions in the facial area. © 2015 © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Chou S.-J.,Orthodontics | Alawi F.,Pathology
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology | Year: 2011

Emerging evidence suggests that an intact DNA damage response (DDR) serves as a potent barrier to malignant transformation. Using immunohistochemistry and patient-derived biopsy samples, we investigated whether the same may hold true during oral carcinogenesis. DNA damage accumulates early in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as evidenced by the detection of surrogate DDR biomarkers γ-H2A.X and phosphorylated CHK2threonine-68 (phospho-CHK2Thr68) in epithelial hyperplasias. However, whereas γ-H2A.X expression peaked in dysplastic epithelium, its levels were significantly reduced in OSCCs (χ2 = 7.655; P = .02). In contrast, there was a trend toward increased phospho-CHK2Thr68 expression with increasing severity of the pathology. Nonetheless, combined expression of the biomarkers was significantly greater in the nontransformed tissues relative to OSCCs (χ2 = 6.42; P = .04). Thus, our findings suggest that early therapeutic exploitation of the DDR may be worthy of investigation as a means by which to limit OSCC development. © 2011 Mosby, Inc.


Aims: HER2 gene amplification has been detected in 10-20% of gastric adenocarcinomas. In view of the recently demonstrated clinical benefit of the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drug trastuzumab in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, reliable HER2 testing is of key importance. The aim of this study was to examine HER2 status in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas comparing SP3 and 4B5 immunohistochemistry (IHC) with dual probe HER2 [fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and silver in situ hybridization (SISH)]. Methods and results: IHC and SISH were carried out on biopsy specimens of 146 patients with adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and stomach. All SP3-IHC-positive cases and 91% of 4B5-IHC-positive cases were amplified. Sensitivity of SP3-IHC-positivity and 4B5-IHC-positivity for amplification was 77% and 96%, respectively. Results of FISH performed in 42 cases were identical to SISH. Amplification was heterogeneous in 73% of the adenocarcinomas; 24% of the oesophago-gastric carcinomas and 7% of distal stomach tumours were amplified. Conclusions: HER2-positivity is present in a significant proportion of oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas (24%), but at a lower rate in the distal stomach (7%). Sensitivity for amplification is higher with 4B5 IHC than with SP3. FISH and SISH yield identical results, but assessment is much easier with SISH. Our findings provide important guidance for HER2-testing in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas for patients in whom anti-HER2 treatment is considered. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.


Kusnik B.,Pathology
Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie | Year: 2010

Lymphocytic colitis is a disease characterised by chronic watery diarrhoea that can only be diagnosed histologically, since colonoscopy reveals macroscopically normal mucosa. A causal relationship to the administration of certain drugs has repeatedly been described. In this report we describe a case of lymphocytic colitis that developed after initiation of treatment with duloxetine - a selective serotonin- and noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitor - and remitted after discontinuation of the drug. Since a causal relationship between the onset of lymphocytic colitis and the use of duloxetine is highly probable, duloxetine should be included among those drugs capable of inducing lymphocytic colitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.


Yoshida A.,National Cancer Center Hospital | Asano N.,National Cancer Center Hospital | Kawai A.,National Cancer Center Hospital | Kawamoto H.,National Cancer Center Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2015

Aims: Malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRTs) and epithelioid sarcomas (ESs) are distinctive malignant neoplasms with characteristic clinicopathological features. However, these two tumour types share some phenotypic features, such as epithelioid/rhabdoid cytology, expression of epithelial markers, andimmunohistochemical loss of INI1. The distinction can be problematic in atypical clinical settings, and ancillary diagnostic tools are needed. The expression of CD34 is widely cited as favouring the diagnosis of ES, but no formal comparative study has been performed in the post-INI1 era. Here, we evaluated theutility of SALL4 for differentiating MRTs from ESs, and compared its performance with that of CD34. Methods and results: Fifteen MRTs and 36 ESs were retrieved. All MRTs and ESs lacked INI1 reactivity, except for one MRT that lacked BRG1. A representative slide from each case was stained using antibodies against SALL4 and CD34. Ten (67%) of the 15 MRTs expressed SALL4. In contrast, only one (3%) of the 36 ESs expressed SALL4. CD34 staining was observed in nine (60%) of the MRTs and 29 (81%) of the ESs. Conclusions: Despite moderate sensitivity, SALL4 expression may aid in distinguishing MRTs from ESs. CD34 was found to have questionable utility in making such distinctions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Stolte M.,Pathology | Hartmann F.O.,Medizinische Klinik
Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie | Year: 2010

Although NSAID-induced colonopathy characterised by erosions, ulcers, strictures and diaphragms has been known for quite some time, it is not infrequently misinterpreted endoscopically and histologically as Crohn's disease. This is exemplified by the present case history of a 39-year-old man with bloody diarrhoea and a stenosis in the transverse colon that was histologically interpreted as "consistent with Crohn's disease". Treatment with glucocorticoids, however, merely gave rise to adverse reactions. After surgical treatment of the stenosis, the episodes of bloody diarrhoea persisted, and endoscopy continued to reveal erosions and ulcers in the transverse colon. Changing treatment to azathioprine also failed to produce any positive response, merely causing side effects. Subsequent evaluation of the histological specimens by a consultant pathologist turned up the tentative diagnosis of NSAID-induced colonopathy. An analysis of the patient's medical history revealed that he was suffering from Bechterew's disease, for which he had long been taking diclofenac. This case history is a good example of the fact that NSAID-induced enterocolopathy is still too poorly recognised among internists, gastroenterologists and pathologists, and, on the basis of the discontinuous endoscopic and histological findings, is often misinterpreted as Crohn's disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.


Kinra P.,Pathology | Dutta V.,AFMC
Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Complicated Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with a 6.4% mortality rate in India, yet its prognostication is incompletely understood. The conventional prognostic markers of falciparum malaria include clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters. However these factors are non-specific. Hence there is a need of an accurate inexpensive objective marker for prognosticating falciparum malaria infection outcomes. Angiopoietins, angiogenic factors, eotaxins, adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines have been studied for prognostication of this common disease. Determination of the first four is technically difficult and requires a high level of expertise and equipment. Intermediary cytokines have the most promising role. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the serum level of TNF-α in patients with P. falciparum malaria and carry out statistical analysis of levels of serum TNF-α with parasite index, age, severity of anaemia, hypoglycaemia, hepatic and renal dysfunction. In our study the average TNF alpha level in 91healthy controls was 46.42 pg/ml whereas that in mild falciparum malaria was 100.45 pg/ml, in severe malaria - 278.63 pg/ml and in cerebral malaria it was 532.6 pg/ml. The mean TNF alpha level was significantly different in severe malaria and cerebral malaria compared to that in healthy controls (p < 0.02). The difference in levels of TNF alpha was significantly higher in falciparum malaria patients with anaemia, altered liver functions, hyperparasitemia, leucocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and hypoglycaemia. The TNF levels did not correlate well with haemolysis markers and patients with altered renal function. Hence a raised TNF alpha can predict the likelihood of oncoming anaemia, hypoglycaemia, altered hepatic function and leucocytosis but not the grades of malaria. The duration of stay in hospital and change in parasite index between the 5th day and the 1st day of admission was used a clinical outcome marker in this study. The analysis showed that serum TNF alpha was raised significantly (p= 0.001) in patients with longer duration stay in hospital. The cytokine was significantly raised in patients having disorientation /cognitive disorder /coma and ARDS (p= 0.001, 0.0023 respectively). The study concluded that serum TNF alpha if done at time of admission and on day 3 can indicate the severity of disease and its complications.

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