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Arnold D.,Universitatsklinikum Halle Saale | Arnold D.,Universitatsklinikum Halle | Schmoll H.-J.,Universitatsklinikum Halle Saale | Lang H.,Universitatsmedizin Mainz | And 11 more authors.
Onkologie | Year: 2010

As far as the management of primary resectable liver metastases is concerned, three approaches are currently competing with each other: surgery alone, surgery with pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, and surgery with postoperative chemotherapy alone. The core of the argument for pre- and postoperative chemotherapy in these patients is the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 40983 study, which concluded that, in comparison with surgery alone, perioperative chemotherapy improved the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) by 7 months. In contrast to this, there are two smaller studies - at a somewhat lower strength of evidence - indicating that adjuvant chemotherapy extends PFS by 9.1 months compared with surgery alone. In Germany, the adjuvant approach continues to be favored in many places; this can also be seen in the formulation of the S3 guideline. In patients with unresectable liver metastases - with the associated difficulty of classification due to the lack of clear and definitive criteria - preoperative systemic therapy to induce 'conversion' is indicated, in order to allow secondary resection. In KRAS wild-type tumors, high response rates (in terms of a reduction in size of the metastases, such as according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors)) and a high conversion rate are achieved using a cetuximab/chemotherapy combination. Triple chemotherapy combinations with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin and irinotecan also produce high response rates. Bevacizumab/chemotherapy combinations have led to a high number of complete and partial pathohistological remissions in phase II studies; these seem to correlate with long survival times. In the absence of long-term survival data, it therefore seems to remain unclear as to what is the best parameter to use in order to assess the success of preoperative treatment. Lung metastases, too, or local peritoneal carcinomatosis can nowadays be operated on in selected patients with a good prospect of long-term remission or even cure. The surgery should, however, generally only be carried out in experienced centers, especially in the case of peritoneal carcinomatosis. For synchronous metastasization, the appropriate management depends on the size and extent of liver metastases and of the primary tumor. Small, peripherally lying and safely resectable liver metastases can be removed before or at the same time as the primary tumor, especially if a hemicolectomy is being carried out. If the metastases are unresectable and there is no bleeding or stenosis, the primary tumor can also be left in situ and systemic chemotherapy can be carried out first. However, it should be borne in mind that, according to current data, palliative resection of the primary tumor combined with systemic therapy leads to longer overall survival than does chemotherapy alone. Whether resection or chemotherapy should be done first therefore depends on the patient's clinical situation. © 2010 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Reinacher-Schick A.,Ruhr University Bochum | Arnold D.,Universitatsklinikum Halle Saale | Trarbach T.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Ridwelski K.,Klinik fur Allgemein und Viszeralchirurgie | And 4 more authors.
Onkologie | Year: 2010

The goal of improving adjuvant treatment can be reached in two ways: firstly, by developing more effective drugs and protocols and, secondly, by selecting suitable patients on the basis of clinical and molecular factors. In UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) stage II, microsatellite instability (MSI) is a strong prognostic factor. Whether it can also be used as a predictive marker is currently a matter of controversy because the available data are contradictory. The question whether or not the MSI status should be checked before treatment decisions are made in stage II patients can therefore not be clearly answered at present. For adjuvant treatment in stage III, with capecitabine/oxaliplatin (XELOX) there is now a new protocol available that is based on the orally administered prodrug capecitabine. With regard to the question of how much older patients in this stage may also benefit from a combination chemotherapy, new - and contradictory-data have emerged recently: firstly, preliminary results of two new studies have given rise to safety concerns and, secondly, an analysis by the 'ACCENT Collaborative Group' indicated lower efficacy of the 'newer' adjuvant protocols in older people. These findings, however, have now been called into question as a result of a new subgroup analysis from the XELOXA study. The expert group therefore recommended that the decision whether to treat patients older than 70 years with an (oral) fluoropyrimidine alone or in combination with oxaliplatin should be based on clinical parameters such as biological age and comorbidities. © 2010 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Faber C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Faber C.,Pathologisches Institute der LMU Munich | Horst D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hlubek F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kirchner T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Aims: The RNASE III endonuclease Dicer is one of the key enzymes of microRNA biogenesis. The influence of Dicer-expression in tumour cells on the prognosis of patients with several cancers has been studied with controversial results among different cancer types. To date no one has examined the effect of this biomarker on survival in colorectal carcinoma. Thus, we aimed to study the influence of Dicer expression on survival in colorectal cancer. Methods: We performed immunohistochemical analyses on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cancer tissue with an antibody against the Dicer protein. Tumour material from 237 cases was available from patients with colorectal adeonocarcinomas with moderate differentiation (G2) and without evidence of lymph-node (N0) or distant metastasis (M0). Sixty-four cases were in T2 and 173 in T3 stages. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed with each tumour in triplicate. Each tumour was assigned to a scoring scale of 0-3, depending on the cytoplasmatic expression of Dicer. A Kaplan-Maier analysis was performed and the log-rank test was used for significance levels by using SPSS v.17 software. Results: The expression of Dicer in colorectal carcinoma shows a strong association with poor survival (cancer specific survival = CSS, p < 0,001) as well as with reduced progression free survival (PFS, p < 0,001). In the group with no Dicer staining there was no recorded relapse (0/15) compared with 10/18 relapses in the group with the strongest staining of Dicer. Conclusions: Strong expression of the central microRNA biosynthesis enzyme Dicer predicts poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. This is in line with investigations on prostate cancer. Contradictory, in breast, lung and ovary cancer Dicer has been shown to be a marker of good prognosis. Further studies on the cellular functions of Dicer need to address these issues. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ellermeier J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wei J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wei J.,Nanjing University | Duewell P.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Deregulated TGF-β signaling in pancreatic cancer promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and a potent immunosuppressive network. A strategy for disrupting this tumor-promoting pathway is silencing TGF-β by siRNA. By introducing a triphosphate group at the 5′ end of siRNA (ppp-siRNA), gene silencing can be combined with immune activation via the cytosolic helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a ubiquitously expressed receptor recognizing viral RNA. We validated RIG-I as a therapeutic target by showing that activation of RIG-I in pancreatic carcinoma cells induced IRF-3 phosphorylation, production of type I IFN, the chemokine CXCL10, as well as caspase-9-mediated tumor cell apoptosis. Next, we generated a bifunctional ppp-siRNA that combines RIG-I activation with gene silencing of TGF-β1 (ppp-TGF-β) and studied its therapeutic efficacy in the orthotopic Panc02 mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Intravenous injection of ppp-TGF-β reduced systemic and tumorassociated TGF-β levels. In addition, it induced high levels of type I IFN and CXCL10 in serum and tumor tissue, systemic immune cell activation, and profound tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. Treatment of mice with established tumors with ppp-TGF-β significantly prolonged survival as compared with ppp-RNA or TGF-β siRNA alone. Furthermore, we observed the recruitment of activated CD8+ T cells to the tumor and a reduced frequency of CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid cells. Therapeutic efficacy was dependent on CD8+ T cells, whereas natural killer cells were dispensable. In conclusion, combing TGF-β gene silencing with RIG-I signaling confers potent antitumor efficacy against pancreatic cancer by breaking tumor-induced CD8+ T cell suppression. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

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