Pathological Anatomy

Ancona, Italy

Pathological Anatomy

Ancona, Italy
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Arbyn M.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | Broeck D.V.,Ghent University | Broeck D.V.,Algemeen Medisch Labo | Broeck D.V.,University of Antwerp | And 21 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2016

Background: Early effects of HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination are reflected by changes observable in young women attending cervical cancer screening. Subject and methods: The SEHIB study included HPV geno-typing of ∼6000 continuous and 650 pathological cervical cell specimen as well as biopsies, collected from women in Belgium in 2010-2014. Data were linked to vaccination status. Results: HPV vaccination offered protection among women aged <30. years against infection with HPV16 (vaccine effectiveness [VE] = 67%, 95% CI: 48-79%), HPV18 (VE = 93%, 95% CI: 52-99%), and high-risk HPV (VE = 16%, 95% CI: 2-29%). Vaccination protected also against cytological lesions. Vaccination protected against histologically confirmed lesions: significantly lower absolute risks of CIN1+ (risk difference [RD] = -1.6%, 95% CI: -2.6% to -0.7%) and CIN3+ associated with HPV16/18 (RD = -0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to -0.1%). Vaccine effectiveness decreased with age. Protection against HPV16 and 18 infection was significant in all age groups, however no protection was observed against cytological lesions associated with these types in age-group 25-29. Conclusion: The SEHIB study demonstrates the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Belgian young women in particular in age group 18-19. Declining effectiveness with increasing age may be explained by higher tendency of women already exposed to infection to get the vaccine. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | World Health Organization, UZ Leuven, VUB, Centrum voor Medische Analyse and 10 more.
Type: | Journal: Cancer epidemiology | Year: 2016

Early effects of HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination are reflected by changes observable in young women attending cervical cancer screening.The SEHIB study included HPV geno-typing of 6000 continuous and 650 pathological cervical cell specimen as well as biopsies, collected from women in Belgium in 2010-2014. Data were linked to vaccination status.HPV vaccination offered protection among women aged <30years against infection with HPV16 (vaccine effectiveness [VE]=67%, 95% CI: 48-79%), HPV18 (VE=93%, 95% CI: 52-99%), and high-risk HPV (VE=16%, 95% CI: 2-29%). Vaccination protected also against cytological lesions. Vaccination protected against histologically confirmed lesions: significantly lower absolute risks of CIN1+ (risk difference [RD]=-1.6%, 95% CI: -2.6% to -0.7%) and CIN3+ associated with HPV16/18 (RD=-0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to -0.1%). Vaccine effectiveness decreased with age. Protection against HPV16 and 18 infection was significant in all age groups, however no protection was observed against cytological lesions associated with these types in age-group 25-29.The SEHIB study demonstrates the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Belgian young women in particular in age group 18-19. Declining effectiveness with increasing age may be explained by higher tendency of women already exposed to infection to get the vaccine.


Bianciardi G.,University of Siena | Pontenani F.,University of Siena | Vassallo L.,University of Siena | Tacchini D.,University of Siena | And 2 more authors.
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2016

For diagnostic purposes, cryofixation of tissues is a daily routine technique to investigate rapidly about the presence of tumours during a surgical procedure in patients. We performed morphometric analysis of cryofixed muscular tissues according to different techniques. About 1,000 muscle fibers and 1,493 nuclei, were automatically examined. After freezing, ice tissue interfaces shrinkage of the cells were present. Liquid isopentane or liquid nitrogen produced a statistical increase of fractal dimension, D, of the ice-tissue interfaces, P<0.001 respect to the formalin-fixed samples, cryofixation performed inside the cryostat chamber at t=-20°C produced a D value close to the formalin-fixed samples. Shrinkage of the muscle fibers was higher in the samples cryofixed inside the cryostat chamber (P<0.001). Cryofixation inside cryostat or by liquid nitrogen caused decreases of the nuclei dimensions and altered nuclear morphology (P<0.01), liquid isopentane appeared not affecting the nuclei of the fibers. Cryofixation inside the cryostat chamber produced the highest shrinkage but it was reduced performing cryofixation in liquid nitrogen or isopentane. Freezing damage inside the muscle cells was absent in the samples cryofixed inside the cryostat, it was present after cryofixation by liquid nitrogen or isopentane. Subcellular components like the nuclei were preserved by isopentane. This paper present, for the first time, an objective method able to quantify and characterize the damages produced by cryofixation in biological sample for intraoperative consultation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Institute Catala dOncologia Badalona HU Germans Trias i Pujol, Pathological Anatomy and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2016

Platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a preferred standard of care for locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). However, survival benefit is small, with substantial toxicity and biomarkers of CRT resistance that could guide treatment selection and spare morbidity. Increased DNA repair in solid tumors may contribute to cancer cells ability to survive in genotoxic stress environments afforded by therapy. We assessed mRNA expression levels of DNA repair-related genes BRCA1, RAP80, 53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), and RNF8. We correlated our findings with response and overall survival in 72 head and neck patients treated with weekly carboplatin AUC 2 and radiotherapy. Complete response (CR) to CRT was 50 % in patients with low levels of 53BP1 compared to 6.3 % in patients with high levels (p = 0.0059). Of high BRCA1 mRNA expressors, 41.2 % had CR compared to 29.4 % of low expressors (p = 0.72). For a small group of patients with low 53BP1 and either high BRCA1 or RAP80, CRs were 66.7 and 71.4 %, respectively. A trend for better overall survival (OS) was found for patients with low 53BP1 (15 vs 8 m; p = 0.056). Our findings highlight the potential usefulness of 53BP1 mRNA as a predictive biomarker of response and overall survival in HNC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Those with high 53BP1 expression could derive only a meager benefit from treatment. Analysis of BRCA1 and RAP80 could further reinforce the predictive value of 53BP1. Although this was a retrospective study with small sample size, it could inform larger translational studies in HNC.


PubMed | University of Reggio Calabria, Pathological Anatomy and University of Siena
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microscopy research and technique | Year: 2016

For diagnostic purposes, cryofixation of tissues is a daily routine technique to investigate rapidly about the presence of tumours during a surgical procedure in patients. We performed morphometric analysis of cryofixed muscular tissues according to different techniques. About 1,000 muscle fibers and 1,493 nuclei, were automatically examined. After freezing, ice tissue interfaces shrinkage of the cells were present. Liquid isopentane or liquid nitrogen produced a statistical increase of fractal dimension, D, of the ice-tissue interfaces, P<0.001 respect to the formalin-fixed samples, cryofixation performed inside the cryostat chamber at t=-20C produced a D value close to the formalin-fixed samples. Shrinkage of the muscle fibers was higher in the samples cryofixed inside the cryostat chamber (P<0.001). Cryofixation inside cryostat or by liquid nitrogen caused decreases of the nuclei dimensions and altered nuclear morphology (P<0.01), liquid isopentane appeared not affecting the nuclei of the fibers. Cryofixation inside the cryostat chamber produced the highest shrinkage but it was reduced performing cryofixation in liquid nitrogen or isopentane. Freezing damage inside the muscle cells was absent in the samples cryofixed inside the cryostat, it was present after cryofixation by liquid nitrogen or isopentane. Subcellular components like the nuclei were preserved by isopentane. This paper present, for the first time, an objective method able to quantify and characterize the damages produced by cryofixation in biological sample for intraoperative consultation.


Goettmann S.,Dermatology | Zaraa I.,La Rabta Hospital | Moulonguet I.,Pathological Anatomy
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2012

Background Lichen planus limited to the nail is uncommon, and information about its long-term prognosis is lacking. Objectives We attempted to review the epidemiological, clinical and histological features, the response to treatment and the follow-up of a large series of patients with nail lichen planus (NLP). Methods We searched for the records of all patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of isolated NLP apart from January 1997 to December 2008. The patients presented during this period and followed until December 2009 in the consultation for nail disorder were reviewed in detail. Results Data on 67 patients were collected, with an average age of 47 years (6-78 years). A male preponderance was observed (64%). The mean duration of the disease was about 38 months. Fingernails were the site of involvement in 94% of cases. Matrix involvement was observed in 91% of cases. A total of 120 specimen's biopsy were taken and was contributory in 90% of cases. Two specimens biopsy were practiced in 70.15% of patients. Systemic corticosteroids were used in 46 patients, and associated in 20 cases to intralesional corticosteroids. Conclusions Our findings indicate that if NLP is correctly diagnosed and appropriately treated. Nail biopsy is proven to be a relatively simple, safe and useful procedure with a minimal scarring risk. Long-term observation indicates that the prognosis of NLP is poor with high rate of relapses, with permanent damage to the nail unit. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.


Pistelli M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Pagliacci A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Battelli N.,Marche Polytechnic University | Santinelli A.,Pathological Anatomy | And 4 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2013

Aim: Triple-negative breast cancer has a poor prognosis due to its aggressive behaviour and lack of effective targeted therapies. We aimed to verify whether clinical and/or pathological features may help us identify triple-negative breast cancer with a different outcome. Patients and Methods: Patients diagnosed with stage I-III triple-negative breast cancer at our Institution were included in the analysis. The impact of various factors (age, menopausal status, tumor characteristics, adjuvant treatment, etc.) on survival was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were included in this retrospective analysis. At univariate analysis, a better disease-free survival was related to smaller tumour size and absence of lymphovascular involvement or necrosis. At multivariate analysis, tumour size and lympho-vascular invasion were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion: Triple-negative breast cancer represents a heterogeneous disease with different biology and clinical behaviour. These results re-inforce the wide use of adjuvant chemotherapy for all types of triple-negative breast cancer, regardless of tumour size or lymphovascular invasion. New biomarkers are mandatory for a better stratification of this heterogeneous population.


Cirauqui B.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Margeli M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Quiroga V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Quer A.,Pathological Anatomy | And 9 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2016

Platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a preferred standard of care for locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). However, survival benefit is small, with substantial toxicity and biomarkers of CRT resistance that could guide treatment selection and spare morbidity. Increased DNA repair in solid tumors may contribute to cancer cells’ ability to survive in genotoxic stress environments afforded by therapy. We assessed mRNA expression levels of DNA repair-related genes BRCA1, RAP80, 53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), and RNF8. We correlated our findings with response and overall survival in 72 head and neck patients treated with weekly carboplatin AUC 2 and radiotherapy. Complete response (CR) to CRT was 50 % in patients with low levels of 53BP1 compared to 6.3 % in patients with high levels (p = 0.0059). Of high BRCA1 mRNA expressors, 41.2 % had CR compared to 29.4 % of low expressors (p = 0.72). For a small group of patients with low 53BP1 and either high BRCA1 or RAP80, CRs were 66.7 and 71.4 %, respectively. A trend for better overall survival (OS) was found for patients with low 53BP1 (15 vs 8 m; p = 0.056). Our findings highlight the potential usefulness of 53BP1 mRNA as a predictive biomarker of response and overall survival in HNC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Those with high 53BP1 expression could derive only a meager benefit from treatment. Analysis of BRCA1 and RAP80 could further reinforce the predictive value of 53BP1. Although this was a retrospective study with small sample size, it could inform larger translational studies in HNC. © 2016 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM)


Bianciardi G.,University of Siena | Pontenani F.,University of Siena | Tripodi S.,Pathological Anatomy
Current Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

Cryofixation of tissues in a cryostat chamber is a routine technique to investigate rapidly about the presence of tumours during a surgical procedure in patients (intraoperative consultation). The tissue is placed without cryoprotectant in contact with a cooled metal block inside the cryostat used for cutting and preparing the specimen, without or with a heavy weight. Until now, quantitative studies of the damages produced by freezing in intraoperative consultation are lacking. To obtain quantitative indexes we have performed fractal analysis (local fractal dimension, D0 and entropy, D1) of the cryofixed muscular tissues in comparison to formalin-fixed samples. Seventy-two microscopic fields or 700 muscle fibres were automatically examined. After freezing at t = 20 °C using an heavy weight, large voids inside the cells (ice-tissue interfaces) were present, while without the use of the weight the fibres collapse (shrinkage). Fractal analysis revealed the presence of a multifractal structure. In the formalin-fixed samples, at large scale the muscle tissue D0 and D1 reached the values of the Diffusion-Limited Aggregation process. At large scale, after cryofixation using the weight, D0 and D1 statistical increased (p<0.01; p<0.01), respect to the formalin-fixed samples, while, without the weight, the values were close to the ones of formalin-fixed samples. At low scale, without the weight, D0 and D1decreased statistically (p<0.01) compared to the formalin-fixed samples, while, with the weight, the values were close to the ones of formalin-fixed samples. Large and low scales accurately quantified the amount of ice-tissue interfaces and cell shrinkage, respectively. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.


PubMed | Medical Oncology, Pathological Anatomy and Thoracic Surgery
Type: | Journal: Respiratory medicine case reports | Year: 2015

We report here a 66-year-old woman diagnosed with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the right lung cT4N2M0. The patient was from the Philippines, had never smoked, and tested positive for an EGFR mutation. She received gefitinib as neoadjuvant therapy for two months and displayed a partial response. The tumour was resected by performing a right pneumonectomy. The residual viable tumour accounted for less than 10%. Adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin-taxol was administered for four cycles. Fifteen months post-surgery, two brain metastases were found. Gefitinib was prescribed, and one month later complete radiological response was assessed. The patient remains asymptomatic and without visible disease four months later. Controlled randomised trials are needed to clarify the role of these target therapies in the neoadjuvant setting.

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