Surrey England, United Kingdom
Surrey England, United Kingdom

Time filter

Source Type

Whitby R.D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2012

With the advent of regulations in Western Europe, North America, Japan, and other countries that require improved fuel efficiencies, lower exhaust emissions and emission control system durabilities, attention has been focused on lower-viscosity, heavy-duty diesel engine oils (HDDEO). In 2011, the EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration established a Heavy-Duty National Program, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. This program will begin with model year 2014 trucks and should be fully implemented by 2018. Many manufacturers recommend lower-viscosity lubricants in their newest engines, recognizing that lower viscosity engine and gear oils have provided demonstrable fuel economy benefits for cars and vans. Some truck operators have begun to make the switch. According to the Centre Professionnel des Lubrifiants in 2012, the percentage of 0W, 5W and 10W-30 viscosity grades for HDDEO in France had increased. Field tests conducted by Chevron Oronite using 15 trucks that ran for ≤ 150,000 km show that SW-30 and 10W-30 oils provide more fuel economy improvement potential than SW-40, 1OW-40 or 15W-40 lubricants for heavy-duty diesel engines. Lubrizol, Afton Chemical, and Infineum have also developed additive technologies for low viscosity HDDEO. Lubrizol claims that its CV9601 additive package enables the formulation of low viscosity 5W-30 heavy-duty diesel engine oils with 3.5 HTHS. Shell, Castrol, ExxonMobil and other leading suppliers of lubricants are now promoting 5W-30 viscosity HDDEO.


Whitby R.D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2012

VI is used in the oil industry and quantifies the rate of change of viscosity with temperature. An increase in temperature or a decrease in pressure weakens the intermolecular bonds in a fluid, leading to a reduction in its viscosity, indicating that for all liquids, as the temperature increases, the liquid's viscosity decreases. For any particular oil, knowledge of the viscosity at two selected temperatures is required for the viscosity at a third temperature to be predicted, provided extrapolation is not extended into the region of the pour point. VI is important in machinery that must be started and operated over a wide temperature range. All other factors being equal, oils with higher VI give less viscous drag during starting and provide thicker oil films for better sealing and wear prevention. Different types of oils can have very different VI. API Group I and II base oils have VI in the range 95-105, while Group III base oils and polyalphaolefins have VI between 125 and 140.


Whitby R.D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2011

Correct monitoring and maintenance of metalworking fluids (MWF), whether water-mix or neat mineral oil types, is an important part of any lubricant program. Proper management of these fluids extends the service life of fluids, which saves money on purchasing and disposal costs; maintains tool life and allows for more consistent, high-quality production; protects machine tools from corrosion; protects the health of machine operators; reduces impact on the environment; and may insulate companies against the risk of prosecution under health, safety, and environmental regulations. There are a limited number or tests that are required for routine monitoring or water-mix MWF such as appearance, pH, concentration, tramp oil content, and bacteria and fungi per milliliter of fluid. Planning a monitoring program for MWF is relatively straightforward, as is communicating the results or the tests. Small and large companies are able to achieve equally excellent results because many or the tasks required to monitor and maintain MWF are relatively easy and low-cost. Operators in a small company, perhaps with only two or three machine tools, should have no lesser expectation of a safe and healthy working environment than their counterparts in a large company. Management support and a well-planned, structured approach with adequate documentation are critical to success.


Whitby D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2011

The frictional properties of a lubricant are critical to ensuring a successful operation. A discussion on stick-slip friction covers examples, e.g., sounds made by bowed instruments, such as, violins and cellos; cases in which stick-slip friction is important, e.g., machine tool slideways, aircraft simulators, and textile manufacturing; importance of determining the frictional properties of lubricants; optimum selection of base oil viscosity; and the frictional properties of slide-way lubricants and hydraulic oils.


Whitby R.D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2013

The key to achieving the appropriate level of performance of a finished lubricant lies in understanding the interactions of base oils and additives and matching these to the types and operating conditions of the machinery it is required to lubricate. Five additive types, i.e., antiwear, lubricity, EP, corrosion inhibitor, metal passivator, and friction-modifier additives, all form films on metal surfaces. Any of these five types of additives that gets to the surface first and forms the strongest layer has the biggest effect. The interactions are primarily with metal oxides, except for EP additives when severe asperity contact results in the creation of fresh metal. These additives (and others) can have detrimental side effects, especially if they are used in excessive amounts or if interactions occur with other additives. The selection of a rust inhibitor requires care since some can cause corrosion of nonferrous metals. Some may also cause problems by emulsifying water.


Whitby R.D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2013

Metal cutting has been considered as a plastic deformation process on a submicronic scale and occurs just before chip fracture, while metalworking fluids help to optimize metalworking processes. The tribology of metal cutting is entirely different from the tribology applied to operating equipment. For the operating equipment, a process designer is limited by the shape of the contacting surfaces, materials used, working conditions set by the operating requirements, and the use of suitable lubricants. In metal cutting, any parameters of the cutting system can be varied in a wide range. The main problem in the selection of optimum cutting parameters is knowledge of metal-cutting tribology. The study and optimization of the tribological conditions during the several alternative metal-cutting processes has great potential to reduce the energy used in cutting, increase tool life, improve dimensional accuracy, reduce waste material and optimize the use of cutting fluids.


Whitby R.D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2013

Compounded gear oils have been used extensively in worm gears with great success in various applications. These are mineral oil-based with rust and oxidation inhibitors and acid-less tallow or synthetic fatty acid, giving excellent lubricity to minimize sliding wear. Gear oils that contain active EP additives are not normally recommended for worm gears, due to the constant wiping action of the high rate of sliding. Polyalphaolefin (PAO) or polyalkylene glycol (PAG) synthetic oils have become lubricants of choice for many worm gear applications due to their friction-reducing and extended life characteristics. PAO have relatively low coefficients of friction, which reduces the amount of internal friction created by the normal shearing of an oil film during operation. PAG are excellent for worm gear applications due to their superior lubricity properties and have good low- and high-temperature properties.


Whitby R.D.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
17th International Colloquium Tribology 2010 - Solving Friction and Wear Problems | Year: 2010

Forty years ago, synthetic lubricants were highly specialised products used in a few niche applications. Although many synthetic fluids were invented and developed in the 1940s and 1950s, it was not until the early 1970s that they began to be used more widely. However, the market share of synthetic and high-performance lubricants continued to be relatively small, even in the 1980s. It was not until the late 1990s that these products had achieved a growing share of the market. This paper traces the growth in demand for synthetic and high-performance lubricants, of all types, initially in Western Europe and North America, and subsequently extending to all regions of the world. The paper then analyses the current applications and markets for synthetic and high-performance lubricants, on a regional basis, and the economic benefits of using these products. Finally, the paper forecasts future demand growth for synthetic and high-performance lubricants.


David Whitby R.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2014

Polyurea grease manufacture has been simplified recently by the use of commercially available polyurea powders. These powders are produced by solvent extraction of the base oil from the polyurea thickener formed in the first manufacturing step. The method significantly eliminates the risks involved in handling the toxic raw materials but limits the types of polyurea greases that can be generated since this option is controlled by the composition of the powder. Polyurea greases tend to have high temperature performance, inherent antioxidative properties, very good water resistance, good mechanical stability and can exhibit either high-shear stability or thixotropic behaviors. Some polyurea greases with proprietary EP additive packages provide load-carrying capability without degrading the thermal stability of the grease at high temperatures. In the ASTM D3336 grease life test, these greases demonstrate an average life that is 3-5 times better than the high-temperature lubrication life of competitive multipurpose, lithium-based greases.


David Whitby R.,Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
Tribology and Lubrication Technology | Year: 2014

Ab Nanol Technologies Oy, a Finnish company, is marketing nanotechnology-based lubricant oil additives that could find their way into auto-engine oils. According to Nanol, the breakthrough innovation consists in forming a protective nanolayer on the friction surfaces that prevents hydrogen from destroying the contact surfaces. The precisely distributed suspended copper nanoparticles form a thin protective layer only on the friction surfaces. The company claims that the 'metalplating copper film' protects the friction zones against wear, reduces the operation temperature of the friction units and extends the lifetime of machines and components. The patented technology also increases the efficiency of combustion engines, improves ecological parameters, and enhances the efficiency of industrial applications with heavy friction and high temperatures.

Loading Pathmaster Marketing Ltd. collaborators
Loading Pathmaster Marketing Ltd. collaborators