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Abdel-Aal E.-S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Hucl P.,University of Saskatchewan | Shea Miller S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Patterson C.A.,Pathfinders Research and Management Ltd. | Gray D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Canary seed is a true cereal with unique composition. The current study employed light and fluorescence microscopy to visualise starch, protein, phenolics and phytate in hairless canary seed (CDC Maria), a cultivar developed potentially for food use. Macronutrients, minerals and vitamins were evaluated in the developed cultivar and compared with a commercial hairy canary seed, cv. Keet. A control common wheat, cv. Katepwa, was grown adjacent to the canary seed varieties. The compositions of the two canary seed varieties were found to be similar with an average of 55.8. g/100. g of starch, 23.7% g/100. g of protein, 7.9% of crude fat, 7.3. g/100. g of total dietary fibre, 1.8. g/100. g of soluble sugar and 2.3. g/100. g of total ash in the whole grain. Regardless of the milling fraction (whole grain flour, white flour or bran), canary seed had more protein and crude fat and less starch, total dietary fibre and soluble sugar than had wheat. It also had higher concentrations of several minerals and vitamins than did wheat. The structure of the canary seed grain exhibited compound starch granules and protein bodies embedded in a protein matrix similar to that of the oat kernel. Baking tests showed that bread made with 100% hairless canary seed flour was significantly lower in loaf volume and crust and crumb colour than was wheat bread. However, bread with loaf volume, specific volume and crust colour comparable to those of the bread control was achieved by using up to 25% of hairless canary seed or 15% of roasted canary seed flour, thus demonstrating its potential for food applications. © 2010.


Li W.,University of Manitoba | Qiu Y.,University of Manitoba | Patterson C.A.,Pathfinders Research and Management Ltd. | Beta T.,University of Manitoba
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Nineteen glabrous canaryseed samples, comprising brown- and yellow-coloured seeds, were investigated to determine the nature of phenolic constituents present. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined, using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Flavonoid and phenolic acid compositions were determined, using high performance liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) techniques. TPC ranged from 174 to 209 mg/100 g for canaryseed wholemeal samples. The canaryseed bran contained twice as much TPC as the wholemeal. The brown- and yellow-coloured whole canaryseeds exhibited the same flavonoid profiles. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the canaryseed acetone extract was rich in flavonoid glycosides, with the bran being mainly composed of O-pentosyl isovitexin and the flour having a compound at m/z 468. No proanthocyanidins were detected in the 19 samples. Ferulic acid was the dominant phenolic acid, followed by caffeic and p-coumaric acids. The wholemeal obtained from the brown-coloured group had significantly higher contents of ferulic (>196 mg/kg) and caffeic (>96 mg/kg) acids in comparison to the yellow-coloured canaryseed group. The latter had ferulic and caffeic acids at levels less than 165 and 78 mg/kg, respectively, with one exception which had relatively higher levels (190 and 94 mg/kg). Whilst canaryseed flour contained significantly very low levels of ferulic acid (22-34 mg/kg), the bran was enriched in ferulic (593-766 mg/kg), caffeic (304-452 mg/kg) and p-coumaric (119-142 mg/kg) acids. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Boye J.I.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Achouri A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Raymond N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cleroux C.,Food Research Division | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Glabrous (hairless) canary seed belongs to the Poaceae (Gramineae) family and could serve as an alternative source of gluten-free cereal grain. In this study, allergenic cross-reactivities between hairless, dehulled canary seeds (Phalaris canariensis) and major allergenic proteins from gluten, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, sesame, and mustard were studied using commercial enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kits specific for these target allergens. Mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting were further used to assess for the presence of gluten-specific protein fragments. MS results revealed the likely presence of proteins homologous with rice, oat, corn, carrot, tomato, radish, beet, and chickpea. However, no presence of celiac-related gluten fragments from wheat, rye, barley, or their derivatives was found. Immunoblotting studies yielded negative results, further confirming the absence of gluten in the canary seed samples tested. No cross-reactivities were detected between canary seeds and almond, hazelnut, mustard, peanut, sesame, soy, walnut, and gluten using ELISA. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Abdel-Aal E.-S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Hucl P.,University of Saskatchewan | Patterson C.A.,Pathfinders Research and Management Ltd. | Gray D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Canary seed is an important specialty crop in Canada. The current market for this true cereal (i.e., belonging to the family Poaceae as wheat) is limited to feed for caged birds. However, canary seed holds a promise for many food and industrial applications based on its composition. Three wet milling procedures based on ethanol (E), water (W), and alkaline (A) extractions used in different order were investigated to determine extraction efficiency and purity of starch, protein, oil, and fiber separated from hairless canary seed, a variety developed for human consumption. Highest extraction efficiencies were obtained when canary seed was defatted with ethanol and then extracted with alkali and water (EAW process). Using this process, approximately 92% pure starch, 75% pure protein, and oil were recovered from canary seed groats. The highest purity of protein, however, was obtained when canary seed was fractionated by the EWA process, that is, defatted and then extracted with water followed by alkali. Fiber component separated prior to alkaline extraction contained high amounts of nonfiber components as indicated by its yield. The EAW extraction process seems to be more promising in canary seed fractionation based on recovery and purity of components. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Abdel-Aal E.S.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Hucl P.,University of Saskatchewan | Patterson C.A.,Pathfinders Research and Management Ltd | Gray D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Canary seed is one of the top four specialty crops grown in Western Canada. Currently it is used entirely in food mixtures for caged birds but our previous studies have shown its unique composition and potential use in food and non-food applications. Through improvements by plant breeding a hairless variety was developed for human consumption and animal feeding. This study was aimed at investigating phytochemicals and heavy metals in hairless canary seed in comparison with the hairy variety and common wheat using three milling fractions (wholegrain, starchy flour and bran). The levels of bound and unbound phenolic acids, phytate, trypsin and amylase inhibitors tended to be similar in the three grains at a given level of processing. This was also true for most heavy metals tested although hairy canary seed exhibited a significantly higher concentration of copper while both canary seed varieties contained more nickel and zinc than wheat. Condensed tannins, alkaloids and deoxynivalenol (DON) were not detected in any of the crops while very low levels of aflatoxin were detected in all three grains. The results show that both hairless and hairy canary seed possess phytochemicals and heavy metals profile close to that of wheat demonstrating the potential of hairless canary seed as a food crop due to the absence of harmful hairs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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