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Cleveland, OH, United States

Lazarus H.M.,University Hospitals Case Medical Center | Sommers S.R.,University Hospitals Case Medical Center | Arfons L.M.,Louis Stokes Cleveland VAMC | Fu P.,Case Western Reserve University | And 10 more authors.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation | Year: 2011

Nine plasma cell myeloma patients spontaneously developed histologically proven autologous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) limited predominantly to the gastrointestinal tract within 1 month of initial autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) using high-dose melphalan conditioning. All recipients responded promptly to systemic and nonabsorbable oral corticosteroid therapy. All patients previously received systemic therapy with thalidomide, lenalidomide, or bortezomib before AHCT. Using enzymatic amplification staining-enhanced flow cytometry, we evaluated expression of selected transcription regulators, pathway molecules, and surface receptors on samples of the infused hematopoietic cell grafts. We demonstrated significantly enhanced expression of GATA-2, CD130, and CXCR4 on CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells of affected patients compared with 42 unaffected AHCT controls. These 3 overexpressed markers have not been previously implicated in autologous GVHD. Although we did not specifically evaluate T cells, we postulate that exposure over time to the various immunomodulating therapies used for induction treatment affected not only the CD34+ cells but also T cells or relevant T cell subpopulations capable of mediating GVHD. After infusion, the affected hematopoietic progenitor cells then encounter a host that has been further altered by the high-dose melphalan preparative regimen; such a situation leads to the syndrome. These surface markers could be used to develop a model to predict development of this syndrome. Autologous GVHD potentially is a serious complication of AHCT and should be considered in plasma cell myeloma patients with otherwise unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms in the immediate post-AHCT period. Prompt recognition of this condition and protracted treatment with nonabsorbable or systemic corticosteroids or the combination may lead to resolution. © 2011 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Mitchell W.B.,New York Medical College | Mitchell W.B.,New York Blood Center | Pinheiro M.P.,New York Medical College | Boulad N.,New York Medical College | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Hematology | Year: 2014

Platelet survival depends upon mediators of apoptosis e.g., Bcl-xL, Bax, and Bak, which are regulated by thrombopoietin (TPO)-mediated AKT signaling. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) signaling might decrease platelet and/or megakaryocyte apoptosis and increase the platelet count. This study therefore explored anti-apoptotic effects of TPO-R-agonists in vivo on platelets of patients with immune thrombocytopenia. Patients received eltrombopag or romiplostim for two weeks. Total, immature, and large platelet counts were assessed as were Bcl-xL inhibitor assay; Bcl-xL Western blot; and flow cytometric (FACS) analysis of the AKT-signaling pathway. Eight/ten patients had platelet responses to eltrombopag and all three to romiplostim. Platelet sensitivity to apoptosis by Bcl-xL inhibition was greater in pretreatment patients than controls. This sensitivity normalized after one week of therapy, but surprisingly returned to pretreatment levels at week two. FACS analysis revealed increased AKT-pathway signaling after one week, followed by a decrease at week two. Platelet counts correlated with the Bcl-xL/Bak ratio. Platelet survival may be enhanced by TPO-R-agonists as a transient decrease in platelet sensitivity to apoptosis was accompanied by transient activation of AKT. However, this mechanism has only a short-lived effect. Megakaryocytes and platelets already present at the start of TPO-R-agonist treatment appear to respond differently than those generated de novo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kaplan D.,Pathfinder Biotech | Kaplan D.,Case Western Reserve University | Sun Z.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Tallman M.S.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Cytometry Part A | Year: 2014

The E2997 Phase III trial included preservation of valuable chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patient specimens and relevant clinical outcome data. Using a novel high-resolution technology on a flow cytometry platform, we assessed 79 E2997 samples for the expression of 27 analytes that reflected the activity of signaling pathways and apoptosis. We found that the expression levels of ZAP70 segregated the samples into two subpopulations with the distribution showing a peak-trough-peak configuration. Although prior assessment of ZAP70 by standard procedures did not reveal any prognostic information, we found by using the trough in the distribution as a cutpoint that ZAP70 expression levels were significantly correlated with both progression-free survival and overall survival. Additionally, the cells expressing high versus low levels of ZAP70 demonstrated distinct molecular organization as indicated by the other analytes assessed. Our analysis demonstrates the value of ZAP70 expression as a prognostic indicator and suggests that the different clinical results may be due to the distinct molecular biology of the ZAP70-low versus the ZAP70-high CLL samples. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

Kaplan D.,Pathfinder Biotech | Kaplan D.,Case Western Reserve University | Kaye N.,Pathfinder Biotech | Liu F.,Pathfinder Biotech | And 4 more authors.
Cytometry Part A | Year: 2013

Transplantation of CD34+ hematopoietic reconstituting cells (HRC) is an important treatment modality. The cells needed for clinical hematopoietic reconstitution after myeloablation most commonly derive from bone marrow which have been mobilized into the peripheral blood. The number of CD34+ cells in mobilized blood samples is used to indicate the appropriateness of transplantation although it does not evaluate the two necessary functions for successful transplantation: long-term reconstitution mediated by cells with self-renewing proliferation and short-term hematopoietic differentiation mediated by progenitor cells. Using a novel high-resolution immunophenotyping technology on a flow cytometric platform, we have assessed uniformly mobilized CD34+ cells for expression levels of 16 molecules previously associated with HRC function and sought correlations of these expression data with functional short-term assays for colony formation that do predict successful transplantation. We found that colony-forming units were significantly correlated with HoxB4 expression, which was explained by the number of CD34+ cells in the samples. However, analysis of colony-forming units normalized to the CD34+ cell count revealed a significant negative correlation with HoxB4 expression. Thus, increased levels of HoxB4 enhance CD34+ cell number via self-renewing expansion but concomitantly depreciate the capacity for short-term differentiation per cell. Our findings demonstrate the translation of experimental findings into a clinical setting and suggest that the expression level of HoxB4 in CD34+ cells can be used as a measure of a sample's appropriateness for transplantation. © 2012 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

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