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Zaslavsky M.,Schlumberger | Druskin V.,Schlumberger | Davydycheva S.,PathFinder | Knizhnerman L.,Schlumberger | And 2 more authors.

The modeling of the controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) and single-well and crosswell electromagnetic (EM) configurations requires fine gridding to take into account the 3D nature of the geometries encountered in these applications that include geological structures with complicated shapes and exhibiting large variations in conductivities such as the seafloor bathymetry, the land topography, and targets with complex geometries and large contrasts in conductivities. Such problems significantly increase the computational cost of the conventional finite-difference (FD) approaches mainly due to the large condition numbers of the corresponding linear systems. To handle these problems, we employ a volume integral equation (IE) approach to arrive at an effective preconditioning operator for our FD solver. We refer to this new hybrid algorithm as the finite-difference integral equation method (FDIE). This FDIE preconditioning operator is divergence free and is based on a magnetic field formulation. Similar to the Lippman-Schwinger IE method, this scheme allows us to use a background elimination approach to reduce the computational domain, resulting in a smaller size stiffness matrix. Furthermore, it yields a linear system whose condition number is close to that of the conventional Lippman-Schwinger IE approach, significantly reducing the condition number of the stiffness matrix of the FD solver. Moreover, the FD framework allows us to substitute convolution operations by the inversion of banded matrices, which significantly reduces the computational cost per iteration of the hybrid method compared to the standard IE approaches. Also, well-established FD homogenization and optimal gridding algorithms make the FDIE more appropriate for the discretization of strongly inhomogeneous media. Some numerical studies are presented to illustrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the presented solver for CSEM, single-well, and crosswell EM applications. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Source

Koepsell R.,Schlumberger | Han S.Y.,PathFinder | Kok J.,PathFinder | Munari M.,PathFinder | Tollefsen E.,PathFinder
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Americas Unconventional Gas Conference 2011, UGC 2011

The Niobrara formation is an increasingly active exploration target in the Denver-Julesburg basin that contains both reservoir rock and source rock. The reservoir rock consists of up to four laterally continuous chalk benches and the source rock is comprised of three organic-rich interbedded shales. Both permeability and porosity in the Niobrara chalk are relatively low and production is expected to be enhanced by natural fractures related to: horst and graben structures, dissolution of evaporite beds, wrench faulting, listric faulting, regional stresses, and pore pressure. To develop the Niobrara formation, horizontal drilling combined with multistage hydraulic fracturing increasingly is used. To enhance reservoir understanding and optimize field recovery, advanced logging-while-drilling (LWD) services are now available for real-time acquisition and transmission of high-resolution electrical images of the borehole, azimuthal gamma ray, and multi depth measurement of formation resistivity. Analysis of this information in real time with high data rate LWD acquisition telemetry allows proactive well-placement decision making by comparing apparent dip of the formation to the borehole trajectory. This is effectively used for maximum reservoir contact of the lateral wellbore in the desired chalk bench. In addition, the analysis of the high-resolution images facilitates fracture identification, fault estimation, and structural analysis for the optimization of stage designs for hydraulic fracturing. This paper will expand the use of LWD with high-resolution image interpretation, formation evaluation, fracture system analysis, and structural analysis for the purpose of drilling better-performing wells through optimized well placement and hydraulic fracturing operations. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source

Kok J.,PathFinder | DeJarnett J.,Anadarko Petroleum Co. | Geary D.,Anadarko Petroleum Co. | Vauter E.,PathFinder
SPE Eastern Regional Meeting

The Permian Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a prolific brownfield that produces from numerous clastic and carbonate horizons. Some of these reservoirs are composed of several separate thin tight sands ranging from 6 to 11 feet. Historically, these thin bed formations were bypassed because of lack of production in vertical wells. To economically exploit hydrocarbon reserves from these thin beds, maximum reservoir contact within a single layer or commingled across reservoir layers off a horizontal well path is necessary. To maintain or steer the well within these thin reservoirs, distinct log responses across the reservoir is needed for lateral correlations and well trajectory steering. Unfortunately in the thin reservoir realms such as those encountered in the Permian Basin, a lack of contrast in log measurements, such as gamma ray and resistivity, often results in poor geosteering decisions with the consequence of high costs in well construction. Advances in horizontal and LWD technology now offers real-time placement accuracy using proactive bed boundary mapping technology that incorporates a sophisticated arrangements of resistivity transmitter-receiver arrays. It is well understood in the technical domain that log measurements require a degree of change in formation log response for steering applications. However, in low log measurement contrast reservoirs, deep directional curve measurements are currently the optimum alternative for well positioning interpretation. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source

Moon B.,British Petroleum | Kok J.,PathFinder | Tollefsen E.,PathFinder | Han S.,PathFinder | And 2 more authors.
World Oil

Shale gas reservoirs typically exhibit high levels of heterogeneity. They are usually produced with horizontal wells, steered using simple gamma-ray (GR) measurements correlated with vertical pilot wells in an attempt to achieve maximum reservoir exposure. Detailed examination has revealed that steering results for horizontal wells using averaged GR correlation techniques and subsequent structural modeling yield non-unique solutions. This article presents a case study in the Woodford Shale where the conventional process results in at least three different plausible well placement results. Incorporating an azimuthal density image into well placement analysis provides a single unique answer. The article also reviews measurements that indicate that well placement variation can have a large impact on stage-to-stage production. Source

Alford J.,PathFinder | Tollefsen E.,PathFinder | Kok J.,PathFinder | Han S.Y.,PathFinder | And 3 more authors.
Hart's E and P

Work on Anadarko Petroleum Corp. operated wells in the active Eagle Ford shale play of South Texas has demonstrated the benefits of using real-time formation evaluation along the lateral to optimize well placement and improve drilling efficiencies, thus improving shale oil and gas economics. It is shown that logging-while-drilling (LWD), when integrated into the bottomhole assembly (BHA) allows real-time formation evaluation that can assess rock properties in detail and therefore expedite accurate well placement. By employing proprietary geosteering software, it was possible to build a 3-D structure property model from the Eagle Ford pilot well's logging data. Employing post-drilling LWD measurements, a modeled interpretation is constructed that shows that the well lands high in the reservoir and consequently excites the reservoir. Source

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