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Roberts T.J.,Stanford University | Carnahan E.,PATH | Gakidou E.,University of Washington
BMC Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In 2010 more than 7.7 million children died before their fifth birthday. Over 98% of these deaths occurred in developing countries, and recent estimates have attributed hundreds of thousands of these deaths to suboptimal breastfeeding. Methods: This study estimated prevalence of suboptimal breastfeeding for 137 developing countries from 1990 to 2010. These estimates were compared against WHO infant feeding recommendations and combined with effect sizes from existing literature to estimate associated disease burden using a standard comparative risk assessment approach. These prevalence estimates were disaggregated by wealth quintile and linked with child mortality rates to assess how improved rates of breastfeeding may affect child health inequalities. Results: In 2010, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding ranged from 3.5% in Djibouti to 77.3% in Rwanda. The proportion of child Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding is 7.6% at the global level and as high as 20.2% in Swaziland. Suboptimal breastfeeding is a leading childhood risk factor in all developing countries and consistently ranks higher than water and sanitation. Within most countries, breastfeeding prevalence rates do not vary considerably across wealth quintiles. Conclusions: Breastfeeding is an effective child health intervention that does not require extensive health system infrastructure. Improvements in rates of exclusive and continued breastfeeding can contribute to the reduction of child mortality inequalities in developing countries. © 2013 Roberts et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

McAdams D.,PATH
Expert review of vaccines | Year: 2012

Research on spray drying as a processing method to improve vaccine stabilization and to enable novel routes of vaccine delivery has produced promising results; however, the method has yet to be adopted for the manufacture of vaccine products by the pharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the status of spray-drying technology and discusses barriers and opportunities for its future application to vaccines. Source

Despite improvements to water quality, sanitation, and the implementation of current prevention and treatment interventions, diarrhea remains a major cause of illness and death, especially among children less than five years of age in the developing world. Rotavirus vaccines have already begun making a real impact on diarrhea, but several more enteric vaccines will be necessary to achieve broader reductions of illness and death. Among the many causes of diarrheal disease, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella are the two most important bacterial pathogens for which there are no currently licensed vaccines. Vaccines against these two pathogens could greatly reduce the impact of disease caused by these infections. This review describes the approaches to ETEC and Shigella vaccines that are currently under development, including a range of both cellular and subunit approaches for each pathogen. In addition, the review discusses strategies for maximizing the potential benefit of these vaccines, which includes the feasibility of co-administration, consolidation, and combination of vaccine candidates, as well as issues related to effective administration of enteric vaccines to infants. Recent impact studies indicate that ETEC and Shigella vaccines could significantly benefit global public health. Either vaccine, particularly if they could be combined together or with another enteric vaccine, would be an extremely valuable tool for saving lives and promoting the health of infants and children in the developing world, as well as potentially providing protection to travelers and military personnel visiting endemic areas. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children, particularly in the developing world. Vaccines are a critical strategy for protecting children from pneumococcal disease and licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are having a significant impact on invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia throughout the world. Currently available PCVs do not, however, cover all pneumococcal serotypes and are complicated and relatively expensive to manufacture. While new PCV development is focused on either higher valency or more inherent affordability for developing countries, new vaccines are needed that offer serotype-independent protection. Vaccines containing proteins that are common to all pneumococcal serotypes could provide broad protection to children worldwide. Protein subunit and whole cell vaccines have advanced into Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials but face considerable challenges before they can become licensed and widely distributed. © 2016 World Health Organization. Source

Rheingans R.,University of Florida | Atherly D.,PATH | Anderson J.,University of Florida
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Background: Other studies have demonstrated that the impact and cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination differs among countries, with greater mortality reduction benefits and lower cost-effectiveness ratios in low-income and high-mortality countries. This analysis combines the results of a country level model of rotavirus vaccination published elsewhere with data from Demographic and Health Surveys on within-country patterns of vaccine coverage and diarrhea mortality risk factors to estimate within-country distributional effects of rotavirus vaccination. The study examined 25 countries eligible for funding through the GAVI Alliance. Methods: For each country we estimate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of vaccination for each wealth quintile assuming current vaccination patterns and for a scenario where vaccine coverage is equalized to the highest quintile's coverage. In the case of India, variations in coverage and risk proxies by state were modeled to estimate geographic distributional effects. Results: In all countries, rates of vaccination were highest and risks of mortality were lowest in the top two wealth quintiles. However countries differ greatly in the relative inequities in these two underlying variables. Similarly, in all countries examined, the cost-effectiveness ratio for vaccination ($/Disability-Adjusted Life Year averted, DALY) is substantially greater in the higher quintiles (ranging from 2-10 times higher). In all countries, the greatest potential benefit of vaccination was in the poorest quintiles. However, due to reduced vaccination coverage, projected benefits for these quintiles were often lower. Equitable coverage was estimated to result in an 89% increase in mortality reduction for the poorest quintile and a 38% increase overall. Conclusions: Rotavirus vaccination is most cost-effective in low-income groups and regions. However in many countries, simply adding new vaccines to existing systems targets investments to higher income children, due to disparities in vaccination coverage. Maximizing health benefits for the poorest children and value for money require increased attention to these distributional effects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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