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Telles S.,Patanjali Research Foundation
Journal of cultural diversity | Year: 2012

Neuroticism, or negative affectivity, can influence a person's approach to life. This study examined levels of neuroticism in 249 patients with illnesses known to be related to the mental state. All of them were given a six-day intensive yoga program. Patients showed a decrease in neuroticism measured by the PGI Health Questionnaire. The reduction was maximum for (a) those with ages between 36 and 51 years, (b) females, (c) patients with at least 17 years of education, and (d) those who were self-employed. The results show the importance of socio-demographic factors in neuroticism levels and in programs intended to reduce neuroticism. Hence, yoga is a useful intervention to reduce traits of neuroticism, with variations in the degree of change based on social factors.

Bussing A.,Witten/Herdecke University | Michalsen A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Khalsa S.B.S.,Harvard University | Telles S.,Patanjali Research Foundation | Sherman K.J.,Group Health Research Institute
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

This report summarizes the current evidence on the effects of yoga interventions on various components of mental and physical health, by focussing on the evidence described in review articles. Collectively, these reviews suggest a number of areas where yoga may well be beneficial, but more research is required for virtually all of them to firmly establish such benefits. The heterogeneity among interventions and conditions studied has hampered the use of meta-analysis as an appropriate tool for summarizing the current literature. Nevertheless, there are some meta-analyses which indicate beneficial effects of yoga interventions, and there are several randomized clinical trials (RCT's) of relatively high quality indicating beneficial effects of yoga for pain-associated disability and mental health. Yoga may well be effective as a supportive adjunct to mitigate some medical conditions, but not yet a proven stand-alone, curative treatment. Larger-scale and more rigorous research with higher methodological quality and adequate control interventions is highly encouraged because yoga may have potential to be implemented as a beneficial supportive/adjunct treatment that is relatively cost-effective, may be practiced at least in part as a self-care behavioral treatment, provides a life-long behavioural skill, enhances self-efficacy and self-confidence and is often associated with additional positive side effects. © 2012 Arndt Büssing et al.

Jeter P.E.,Johns Hopkins University | Jeter P.E.,Maryland University of Integrative Health | Slutsky J.,Northeastern University | Singh N.,Patanjali Research Foundation | Khalsa S.B.S.,Harvard University
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: A comprehensive bibliometric analysis was conducted on publications for yoga therapy research in clinical populations. Methods: Major electronic databases were searched for articles in all languages published between 1967 and 2013. Databases included PubMed, PsychInfo, MEDLINE, IndMed, Indian Citation Index, Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region, Web of Knowledge, Embase, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Nonindexed journals were searched manually. Key search words included yoga, yoga therapy, pranayama, asana. All studies met the definition of a clinical trial. All styles of yoga were included. The authors extracted the data. Results: A total of 486 articles met the inclusion criteria and were published in 217 different peer-reviewed journals from 29 different countries on 28,080 study participants. The primary result observed is the three-fold increase in number of publications seen in the last 10 years, inclusive of all study designs. Overall, 45% of the studies published were randomized controlled trials, 18% were controlled studies, and 37% were uncontrolled studies. Most publications originated from India (n=258), followed by the United States (n=122) and Canada (n=13). The top three disorders addressed by yoga interventions were mental health, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease. Conclusion: A surge in publications on yoga to mitigate disease-related symptoms in clinical populations has occurred despite challenges facing the field of yoga research, which include standardization and limitations in funding, time, and resources. The population at large has observed a parallel surge in the use of yoga outside of clinical practice. The use of yoga as a complementary therapy in clinical practice may lead to health benefits beyond traditional treatment alone; however, to effect changes in health care policy, more high-quality, evidence-based research is needed. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

Telles S.,Patanjali Research Foundation | Singh N.,Patanjali Research Foundation
Psychiatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2013

The practice of yoga is gaining in popularity with a wide range of practices. Recent research and descriptions from the ancient texts are often concurrent with regard to the effects of the practice, taking into account expected differences between modern scientific terms and those used in the original texts. Voluntarily regulated yoga breathing practices form a bridge between physical and mental changes. The voluntarily regulated yoga breathing has distinct effects on metabolism, the autonomic nervous system, higher brain functions, and mental state. The effects of meditation on the nervous system and mental state are even clearer. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Telles S.,Patanjali Research Foundation | Singh N.,Patanjali Research Foundation | Balkrishna A.,Patanjali Research Foundation
BioPsychoSocial Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Pre and post comparison after one minute of high frequency yoga breathing (HFYB) suggested that the HFYB modifies the autonomic status by increasing sympathetic modulation, but its effect during the practice was not assessed.Methods: Thirty-eight male volunteers with group average age ± S.D., 23.3 ± 4.4 years were each assessed on two separate days in two sessions, (i) HFYB and (ii) breath awareness. Each session was for 35 minutes, with 3 periods, i.e., pre (5 minutes), during HFYB or breath awareness (15 minutes) and post (5 minutes).Results: There was a significant decrease in NN50, pNN50 and the mean RR interval during and after HFYB and after breath awareness, compared to the respective 'pre' values (p < 0.05) (repeated measures ANOVA followed by post-hoc analysis). The LF power increased and HF power decreased during and after breath awareness and LF/HF ratio increased after breath awareness (p < 0.05).Conclusion: The results suggest that there was reduced parasympathetic modulation during and after HFYB and increased sympathetic modulation with reduced parasympathetic modulation during and after breath awareness. © 2011 Telles et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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