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Asep E.K.,University Putra Malaysia | Asep E.K.,Pasundan University | Jinap S.,University Putra Malaysia | Jahurul M.H.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2013

Cocoa butter was successfully extracted from cocoa liquor by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at 35 MPa, 60°C and 2 mL/min with 5%, 15% and 25% cosolvents. The extraction yield of triglycerides (TG) and fatty acid (FA) compositions were significantly influenced by the concentration of polar cosolvents. The SC-CO2 extraction efficiency was increased with cosolvent significantly. Ethanol was found to be the best cosolvent for cocoa butter extraction using SC-CO2 followed by isopropanol and acetone. The triglycerides of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl- glycerol (SOS) were contained in the extracted cocoa butter with POS being the major component. Where palmitic, stearic and oleic were the main fatty acids in the cocoa butter samples, with stearic being the highest component. The lower molecular weight (MW) of TGs and FAs showed the higher selectivity compared to the high MW of TGs and FAs. Thus, they were fractionated during the first stage of SC-CO2 process. Industrial relevance The cocoa butter was successfully extracted from cocoa liquor by SC-CO2 at 35 MPa, 60°C and 2 mL/min using different concentrations of polar cosolvents (ethanol, isopropanol and acetone). The extraction yield was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the concentration of polar cosolvents. Similarly, polar cosolvent concentration had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the TG and FA compositions. Ethanol was found to be the most efficient polar cosolvent for cocoa butter extraction compared to isopropanol and acetone. POS (42.2-45.9%) being the major triglycerdies component, followed by SOS (27.6-31.4%) and POP (20.3-22.7). Palmitic, stearic and oleic acids were the main fatty acids in the extracted cocoa butter, with stearic being the highest (34.9-37.8%), followed by oleic (30.3-31.8%) and palmitic (28.3-30.0%) acids, respectively. The choice of modifiers becomes a great challenge and ethanol was shown to be the best polar cosolvent, and it enhanced the solubility during the cocoa butter extraction by SC-CO2. This method can be feasibly implemented in the cocoa industry for the production of high quality cocoa butter. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liyanthy M.,Pasundan University | Nugroho H.,Telecommunication Engineering | Maharani W.,Telkom University
2015 3rd International Conference on Information and Communication Technology, ICoICT 2015 | Year: 2015

Speech synchronization is one of the studies in the field of facial animation that has been widely studied, which results in speech animation, but there are still many challenges that have not been reached at this time, one of which is realistic speech synchronization. Because of differences in visual phoneme (viseme) in the pronunciation of each language, it is very difficult to make speech synchronization tools that are applicable for all languages, and at present there are no speech synchronization tools that can provide good results for Indonesian Language. This study proposes the introduction of co-articulation in speech synchronization to produce a more realistic animation, and viseme mapping based on the consonant-vowel (CV) syllable pattern in the Indonesian language, resulting in a more specific viseme group, so it supports the development of realistic speech synchronization, next called as Bahasa Speech Sync. Co-articulation calculation is done using Kochanek-Bartels spline interpolation approach which adds tension, bias and continuity parameters, using the 4 control points taken from real human videos, to accommodate the concept of co-articulation. Viseme mapping is done by comparing the difference in distance between the 12 crucial points with a point of reference for each syllable. Based on the results of our proposed viseme grouping procedure, we have simplified the viseme generation from a combination of 21 consonants and 5 vowels into 24 groups of viseme, 18 of which represent the start position while 6 groups represent the and position. Test result of the similarity of the movement between generated animation and real human videos has achieved 89% 'realistic' perception based on our proposed distance criteria. © 2015 IEEE.


Iskandar D.,Pasundan University | Sugandi D.,Pasundan University
International Journal of Conservation Science | Year: 2015

A flood is a disaster with such highly negative impacts on the loss of life and property that it has to be mitigated. In this regard, the present research aims to: measure the rainfall volume that causes flood and analyze the efforts of reducing the flood volume caused by rainfall in the Region of Jakarta. An experimental method was applied to measure rainfall and run-off volumes stored in infiltration wells. The research was conducted in the following stages: analyzing land use and analyzing rainfall and surface runoff volumes. We found that changes in land cover negatively affect the land's ability to absorb rainfall. Land cover formed by vegetation will be different from impermeable land cover, such as houses, offices, pavements, and hotels. To reduce potential flood is achieved by reducing the surface runoff volume. Meanwhile, in order to reduce the runoff volume, an infiltration well that can accommodate 5m3 of water can be constructed for every 100m2 of developed area. With a number of 664,701,800 infiltration wells, as much as 3,323,509m3 of rainfall volume can be collected in those wells. Finally, with these infiltration wells, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta will be free of flood.


Lee S.L.,University of Technology Malaysia | Djauhari M.A.,Pasundan University | Mohamad I.,University of Technology Malaysia
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management | Year: 2014

In past literature, a primary solution to deal with autocorrelated process data consists of two steps, namely (i) time series model building and (ii) control charting based on the residuals. However, it requires some sophisticated statistical skills to build a satisfactory model during the first step. This has motivated us to propose a new procedure of time series model building. If traditionally time series model building is based on autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, in this paper we show that a great number of time series data are governed by geometric Brownian motion (GBM) law. If the process is governed by GBM law, the appropriate model is directly derived from the properties of that law. Otherwise, the model is constructed by using the standard practice. An industrial example is presented to illustrate the advantages of the proposed method. © 2014 IEEE.


Asrah N.M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Djauhari M.A.,Pasundan University
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management | Year: 2014

Road development is one of the important elements for the overall economic and social development in the world. A better interconnected road network is crucial to increase the economic activities, such as trade. Highway, as the backbone of a country's transportation system, are required to overcome the demand for efficient road transportation. Besides, highway development is part of the government commitment towards the development of road network. In this paper, the network analysis of PLUS highway development was studied. The data used were based on the number of vehicles that entered and exited each toll plazas from Penang to Johor. The relationships between the toll plazas were studied by using minimum spanning trees and the overall centrality measures were used to determine the most influential toll plazas among the states. Based on the results, some recommendations are forwarded to the PLUS highway to improve the services and to increase the traffic efficiency. © 2014 IEEE.


Sagadavan R.,University of Technology Malaysia | Djauhari M.A.,Pasundan University | Mohamad I.,University of Technology Malaysia
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management | Year: 2014

In statistical process control, monitoring process target is as important as process variability. In multivariate setting, the latter is still in development due to the complexity of multivariate variability measure. That is why the former is more popular than the latter. The most widely used measure of multivariate variability is the so called generalized variance (GV). In order to monitor GV, we need to estimate the population generalized variance and its square. In the literature, those estimates are given based on single sample. Only recently, it has been developed for the case of m independent samples with equal sample size. This motivates us to further develop in this paper for the case of m independent samples with unequal sample sizes which is usually encountered in service industry. An example of GV control charting for unequal sample sizes will be presented to illustrate the advantages of this method of estimation in monitoring the quality of service. © 2014 IEEE.


Gan S.L.,University of Technology Malaysia | Djauhari M.A.,Pasundan University | Ismail Z.,University of Technology Malaysia
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management | Year: 2014

In this paper, we analyzed the dynamics of correlation structure in foreign exchange market from year 2000 until year 2012. The time windows are yearly basic. The yearly time windows under study are non-overlapping. To monitor the correlation structures stability in foreign exchange market, the correction statistic of term on Jennrich's statistic is used. The dynamics of correlation structures is showed in the form of control chart. The graph showed that the correlation structures of particular time windows are far different from the pooled correlation structure, especially during the US sub-prime crisis 2007. The results are complied with the real situation of financial markets. To identify the root causes of certain time windows, we employed the minimal spanning tree (MST). © 2014 IEEE.


Iskandar D.A.,Pasundan University
WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

From cognitive model approach perspective, a person with major depressive disorder has commonly five depression symptoms i.e. affective, cognitive, motivational, physical and behavioral symptoms. Cognitive model expresses high possible dependency on a person with depression syndrome as one real form of behavioral symptom. High possibility on one person with depressive disorder tends to give him/her high possibility for interpersonal dependency, one dependency one experienced by a person making another person the dependent object. Used research method is qualitative with interview approach equipped with observation method. The population includes people who have been diagnosed for mayor depression by both psychologists and psychiatrist. Sampling has been made using theory based/operation construct in which the sample is selected by certain criteria, based on theory or operational depression construct included into DSM IV TR. There are various interpersonal dependencies on some people with depressive disorder classified into four dimensions, cognitive, motivational, affective and behavioral whereas cognitive and affective dimension have more dominant roles. In addition, there is one extrinsic factor on person with mayor depressive disorder which has role in the process of interpersonal dependency emergence. The factor is parenting style.


Purbasari A.,Pasundan University | Zulianto A.,Bandung Institute of Technology
Proceedings - 1st International Conference on Informatics and Computational Intelligence, ICI 2011 | Year: 2011

Computational complexity is a problem faced in the frequency spectrum auction and is called the Winner Determination Problem. The complexity increases when the object auction increases and partitioned into groups of objects based on some pre-defined zone. With the zoning scheme, there are three alternative determination of winners, the bidders get the whole object of auction at the entire zone (also called all or nothing scheme); auction bidders get the whole object in some specific zones (also called partially zone scheme); bidders are assigned some object in some zones certain (partially block zone). In this paper the issue is viewed as a matter of Knapsack auctions, both Knapsack 0/1 and Bounded Knapsack. The issue is then simulated for the three alternatives to obtain the best solution based on the consideration of the highest revenue. We uses 14 data sets for simulation, with the technique used is the Brute Force and Dynamic Programming which has been implemented in the Java programming language. For the same data sets, the simulation results establish that the partially zone is producing the highest revenue, followed by partually block zone scheme, then the all or nothing scheme. © 2011 IEEE.


Purbasari A.,Pasundan University
2016 6th International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering, WCSE 2016 | Year: 2016

This research focuses on creating a parallel Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA), a parallel metaheuristic algorithm that used to solve the multi-Travelling Salesperson Problem (mTSP). CSA is an algorithm based on population and used in computational intelligent, including optimisation problem. After we identify the parallel potential for CSA and we construct a parallel algorithm with MPJExpress, a Message Passing Interface (MPI) library in the Java programming language. This code is verified by experiments with several datasets. We found that best cost will be reduced in line with the number of generation performed. The number of salesperson will improve the best cost achieved. The best cost is obtained with the lowest number of salesperson (2). The number of PEs is not significant in reducing the best cost. The best cost is obtained with the 2 processing elements. The execution time for the parallel version is greater than the serial time. This is because the experiments use the same execution environment. We need to explore other parallel potentials in this algorithm. This paper also shows that the best cost is obtained with the lowest number of salesperson. Furthermore, it is suggested that this proposed algorithm be used for all versions of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) in future research.

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