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Ayatollahi A.M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Zarei S.M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Memarnejadian A.,Institute Pasture of Iran | Ghanadian M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2016

Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Euphorbia erythradenia Bioss. (Euphorbiaceae), one of Iranian endemic Euphorbias, with particular attention to triterpene constituents, using methanol solvent extraction was carried out. Five known triterpenes, including four cycloartanes and oleanolic acid, were isolated for the first time and identified using NMR and spectrometric Mass techniques. Anti HIV activity of the isolated triterpenes and ingenoid diterpenes was evaluated using single cycle replicable HIV-1 (SCR HIV-1) virions. Molecular features of the most active compound (IC50 = 0.008 μM, CC50 = 3.264 μM, TI = 380.64), which showed higher therapeutic index than nevirapine, was assessed using molecular docking. Docking studies demonstrated three hydrogen bonds between HIV-1 virion protease active site and this compound with a distance less than 3 A° which can be responsible for the observed anti HIV-1 activity. © 2016 by School of Pharmacy Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. Source

Mobasher M.A.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Sajedianfard J.,Shiraz University | Jamshidzadeh A.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Naghdi N.,Institute Pasture of Iran | Namvaran M.M.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective(s): The relationship between tramadol, as an antinociceptive drug, and locus coeruleus (LC), the main noradrenergic nucleus of the brain that affects regulation and modulation of pain through descending noradrenergic pathways was investigated. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats. The rats were fixed in stereotaxic instrument and then a probe was inserted into LC. Pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of 50 μl of 2.5% formalin 40 minutes after initiation of microdialysis in right hind paw, and nociceptive pain scores were calculated every 5 minutes. Subsequently noradrenaline (NA) and its metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), were collected and measured by microdialysis of locus coeruleus in freely moving rats every 15 minutes during formalin injection. Results: Nociceptive pain scores observed in formalin test had the highest nociceptive sensation 5 minutes after injection. Significant rises in concentrations of NA and MHPG, in samples taken between 30 and 45 min after initiation of the locus coeruleus microdialysis, coincided with the peak of the pain after injection of formalin. Conclusion: According to concurrency of the highest nociceptive sensation and peak of NE and MHPG concentrations, tramadol can indirectly affect the LC by blocking the pain signals from different parts of the brain such as periaqueductal gray mater, central nucleus of amygdale or the spinal cord. Source

Ranjbar R.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | Pourshafie M.R.,Institute Pasture of Iran | Soltan-Dallal M.M.,University of Tehran | Rahbar M.,Iranian Reference Health Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Shigellosis as a global human health problem is more severe than other forms of gastroenteritis and causes over a million deaths in developing countries worldwide annually. Fatality due to shigellosis is usually due to dehydration and two-third of fatalities are seen among children. The aim of current study was to describe fatal cases of shigellosis due to infection with Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Patients and methods: We investigated the fatal cases of shigellosis among all children with acute diarrhea admitted to Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. Bacterial isolation and identification was achieved according to standard bacteriological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, plasmid profiling and ribotyping were performed to investigate the clonal relationship among the isolates. Results: Among 1200 children with acute diarrhea, 140(12.7%) cases had shigellosis. Of these, three patients died. No signs of severe dehydration were observed among the fatal cases. The symptoms were not improved following antibiotic therapy and all three cases died after 24 h of hospitalization despite receiving intensive treatments. Stool cultures yielded S. flexneri and S. sonnei for one and two cases, respectively. The isolates were resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. S. sonnei strains were further studied and showed a single pattern of antibiotic susceptibility and ribotyping. Conclusion: Mortality due to species other than S. dysenteriae is rare, however, in current study we found S. sonnei and S. flexneri as the cause of fatality among pediatric patients during the study. ©2010 IDTMRC, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center. Source

Soltan Dallal M.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ranjbar R.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | Pourshafie M.R.,Institute Pasture of Iran
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Shigellosis is one of the major causes of morbidity in children with diarrhea in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) strains isolated from clinically diagnosed cases of gastroenteritis and acute diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. Shigella strains were isolated from stool samples of patients who visited the several major hospitals in Tehran. S. flexneri was preliminarily identified by biochemical tests as well as by API20E. Antimicrobial resistance testing was performed according to the standard guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. All strains were resistant to streptomycin. More than 96.4% of the strains were resistant to tetracycline and amoxicillin, 89% to co-trimoxsazole, 72.6% to ampicillin, 33.3% to chloramphenicol, 9.5% to kanamycin, 1.2% to cefixime, amikacin and furazolidone. None of the tested isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, cephalexine, nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. More than 96% of the strains showed multi-drug resistance phenotype. Seventeen resistance patterns were identified among the strains, however the most prevalent phenotype (36.9%) was R6 (streptomycin/amoxicillin/ tetracycline/co-trimoxsazole/ampicillin). This study indicates an increase in incidence of multiple drug resistance among the strains of S. flexneri isolated in Tehran, Iran. © 2011-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

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