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São Paulo, Brazil

Bones V.C.,Federal University of Parana | Gameiro A.H.,University of Sao Paulo | Castilho J.G.,Pasteur Institute of Sao Paulo | Molento C.F.M.,Federal University of Parana
ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals | Year: 2015

The decision to use laboratory animals rather than in vitro methods is frequently based on the financial costs involved, so the objective of our study was to compare the costs of performing the Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) and Virus Isolation in Cell Culture (VICC) for use in rabies diagnosis in Brazil. Based on observations of laboratory routines at the Pasteur Institute, São Paulo, we listed the fixed cost (FC) and variable cost (VC) items necessary to perform both tests. Considering that 200 MITs are equivalent to 350 VICC assays, in terms of facilities and staff-hours needed per month, we calculated, for both tests, the average total cost per sample, the costs of the implementation of the laboratory structure, and the costs of routine use. With regard to absolute values, the total cost was mainly influenced by FC items, as they represented 60% of the cost for the MIT and 86% of the cost for VICC. A sample analysed by the MIT costs around 205% more than one analysed by using VICC. The MIT costs 74% and 406% more than VICC, when implementation costs and routine use per month, respectively, are taken into account. Our results can assist in the resolution of costing disputes that could hinder the replacement of animals for rabies diagnosis in Brazil. The method demonstrated here might also be useful for cost comparisons in other situations where animal use still continues when validated alternatives exist. Source


Araujo D.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Campos A.C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues C.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Sanfilippo L.F.,Gaia Environmental Consultory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2014

Rabies causes thousands of human and animal deaths worldwide each year. The emergent importance of rabies in wild animals demonstrates the necessity of epidemiologic studies of infection in these species toward the development of better strategies for prevention and control of rabies. We analyzed the circulation of rabies virus among wildlife species from a native rainforest in São Paulo State, Brazil. We used the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) to test for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies in 139 captured terrestrial mammals and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT), mouse inoculation test (MIT), and reverse-transcriptase (RT)- PCR to test for virus in samples from the central nervous system of 53 animals found dead. The percentage of samples positive by RFFIT was 10.8%. All samples tested by FAT, MIT, and RTPCR were negative. Research should be continued to obtain a better understanding of the role of wildlife in the circulation and transmission of rabies virus. © Wildlife Disease Association 2014. Source


Castilho J.G.,Pasteur Institute of Sao Paulo | Carnieli Jr. P.,Pasteur Institute of Sao Paulo | Oliveira R.N.,Pasteur Institute of Sao Paulo | Fahl W.O.,Pasteur Institute of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

The Brazilian chiropteran fauna consists of 167 species; of which, three are hematophagous: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi), and the hairylegged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata). The aim of this study was to describe the isolation of Rabies virus from common and hairy-legged vampire bats and to report the first comparative antigenic and genetic studies of isolates from these bats. Antigenic and genetic typing of both isolates identified them as antigenic variant 3 (AgV3), the variant frequently isolated from common vampire bats. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.3% identity between the isolates. This is the first time since 1934 that Rabies virus has been isolated from hairy-legged vampire bats in Brazil. Our analysis provides evidence that the existence of rabies-positive isolates from hairy-legged vampire bats may be the result of an interspecific rabies transmission event from common vampire bats and suggests that roost cohabitation may occur. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010. Source

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