Pasteur Institute of Lille

Lille, France

Pasteur Institute of Lille

Lille, France

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Frealle E.,Lille University Hospital Center | Frealle E.,Pasteur Institute of Lille | El Safadi D.,Pasteur Institute of Lille | El Safadi D.,Lebanese University | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Despite increasing reports that Blastocystis infection is associated with digestive symptoms, its pathogenicity remains controversial. We report appendicular peritonitis in a 9-yearold girl returning to France from Morocco. Only Blastocystis parasites were detected in stools, appendix, peritoneal liquid, and recto-uterine pouch. Simultaneous gastroenteritis in 26 members of the child’s family suggested an outbreak. © 2015, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.


Morio B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Morio B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fardet A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Legrand P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lecerf J.-M.,Pasteur Institute of Lille
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2016

Reducing the consumption of saturated fatty acids to a level as low as possible is a European public health recommendation to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and development and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, is a matter of debate. A literature search was performed to identify prospective studies and clinical trials in humans that explored the association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM. Furthermore, to assess whether specific foods, and not just the saturated fatty acid content of the food matrix, can have differential effects on human health, the relationship between consumption of full-fat dairy products, a main source of dietary saturated fatty acids, and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM was studied. There is no evidence that dietary saturated fatty acids from varied food sources affect the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM, nor is intake of full-fat dairy products associated with this risk. These findings strongly suggest that future studies on the effects of dietary saturated fatty acids should take into account the complexity of the food matrix. Furthermore, communication on saturated fats and their health effects should be prudent and well informed. © The Author(s) 2015.


PubMed | Queen's University of Belfast, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Pasteur Institute of Lille, University of Milan Bicocca and 10 more.
Type: | Journal: European journal of preventive cardiology | Year: 2016

The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention.We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk of incident acute coronary heart disease and stroke.Compared with more educated smokers, the less educated had an added increase in absolute risk of cardiovascular disease of 3.1% (95% confidence interval+0.1%, +6.2%) in men and of 1.5% (-1.9%, +5.0%) in women, consistent across smoking categories. Conversely, the interaction was negative for overweight: -2.6% (95% CI: -5.6%, +0.3%) and obese: -3.6% (-7.6%, +0.4%) men, suggesting that the more educated would benefit more from the same reduction in body weight. A weaker interaction was observed for body weight in women, and for blood pressure in both genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% (+0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% (-0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts.Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from lifestyle and blood pressure modification, hopefully reducing both their risk and also social inequality in disease.


PubMed | Lebanese University, Pasteur Institute of Lille, GENES DIFFUSION, Lille University of Science and Technology and Lille University Hospital Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology | Year: 2016

To quantitatively assess the risk of contamination by Pneumocystis depending on the degree of immunosuppression (ID) of the exposed rat hosts, we developed an animal model, where rats went through different doses of dexamethasone. Then, natural and aerial transmission of Pneumocystis carinii occurred during cohousing of the rats undergoing gradual ID levels (receivers) with nude rats developing pneumocystosis (seeders). Following contact between receiver and seeder rats, the P. carinii burden of receiver rats was determined by toluidine blue ortho staining and by qPCR targeting the dhfr monocopy gene of this fungus. In this rat model, the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes remained significantly stable and different for each dose of dexamethasone tested, thus reaching the goal of a new stable and gradual ID rat model. In addition, an inverse relationship between the P. carinii burden and the level of circulating CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes was evidenced. This rat model may be used to study other opportunistic pathogens or even co-infections in a context of gradual ID.


PubMed | Queen's University of Belfast, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Pasteur Institute of Lille, University of Milan Bicocca and 14 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Heart (British Cardiac Society) | Year: 2016

To estimate the burden of social inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and to identify their major determinants in 15 European populations.The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) study comprised 49 cohorts of middle-aged European adults free of CHD (110928 individuals) recruited mostly in the mid-1980s and 1990s, with comparable assessment of baseline risk and follow-up procedures. We derived three educational classes accounting for birth cohorts and used regression-based inequality measures of absolute differences in CHD rates and HRs (ie, Relative Index of Inequality, RII) for the least versus the most educated individuals.N=6522 first CHD events occurred during a median follow-up of 12years. Educational class inequalities accounted for 343 and 170 additional CHD events per 100000 person-years in the least educated men and women compared with the most educated, respectively. These figures corresponded to 48% and 71% of the average event rates in each gender group. Inequalities in CHD mortality were mainly driven by incidence in the Nordic countries, Scotland and Lithuania, and by 28-day case-fatality in the remaining central/South European populations. The pooled RIIs were 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) in men and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.4) in women, consistently across population. Risk factors accounted for a third of inequalities in CHD incidence; smoking was the major mediator in men, and High-Density-Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in women.Social inequalities in CHD are still widespread in Europe. Since the major determinants of inequalities followed geographical and gender-specific patterns, European-level interventions should be tailored across different European regions.


Zannad F.,Nancy University Hospital Center | De Backer G.,Ghent University | Graham I.,Adelaide and Meath Hospital | Lorenz M.,Frankfurt University | And 8 more authors.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2, genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.


Whiteson K.L.,San Diego State University | Bailey B.,San Diego State University | Bergkessel M.,California Institute of Technology | Conrad D.,University of California at San Diego | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

A continuously mixed series of microbial communities inhabits various points of the respiratory tract, with community composition determined by distance from colonization sources, colonization rates, and extinction rates. Ecology and evolution theory developed in the context of biogeography is relevant to clinical microbiology and could reframe the interpretation of recent studies comparing communities from lung explant samples, sputum samples, and oropharyngeal swabs. We propose an island biogeography model of the microbial communities inhabiting different niches in human airways. Island biogeography as applied to communities separated by time and space is a useful parallel for exploring microbial colonization of healthy and diseased lungs, with the potential to inform ourunderstanding ofmicrobial community dynamics and the relevance of microbes detected in different sample types. In this perspective, we focus on the intermixed microbial communities inhabiting different regions of the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.


Sonneville R.,Paris West University Nanterre La Défense | Guidoux C.,Paris West University Nanterre La Défense | Barrett L.,University College London | Viltart O.,Pasteur Institute of Lille | And 11 more authors.
Brain Pathology | Year: 2010

Impaired arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis and release by the neurohypophyseal system, which includes the neurohypophysis and magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, have been postulated in septic shock, but changes in this system have never been assessed in human septic shock, and only partially experimentally. We investigated AVP synthesis and release by the neurohypophyseal system in 9 patients who died from septic shock and 10 controls, and in 20 rats with fecal peritonitis-induced sepsis and 8 sham-operation controls. Ten rats died spontaneously from septic shock, and the others were sacrificed. In patients with septic shock, as in rats that died spontaneously following sepsis induction, AVP immunohistochemical expression was decreased in the neurohypophysis and supraoptic magnocellular neurons, whereas it was increased in the paraventricular magnocellular neurons. No significant change was observed in AVP messenger RiboNucleic Acid (mRNA) expression assessed by in situ hybridization in either paraventricular or supraoptic magnocellular cells. This study shows that both in human and experimental septic shock, AVP posttranscriptional synthesis and transport are differently modified in the magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. This may account for the inappropriate AVP release in septic shock and suggests that distinct pathogenic mechanisms operate in these nuclei. © 2009 International Society of Neuropathology.


Melnyk O.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Melnyk O.,Pasteur Institute of Lille | Melnyk O.,University of Lille Nord de France | Ollivier N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2014

The design of novel chemoselective and site-specific ligation methods provides new tools for obtaining complex scaffolds, peptidomimetics, and peptide conjugates. The chemistry of the N-phenylthiocarbonyl group has led to several developments in peptide ligation chemistry and peptide bioconjugation during the last 10 years. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of this emerging field. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Guyot K.,Pasteur Institute of Lille
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010

In 2002, the French Food Safety Agency drew attention to the lack of information on the prevalence of human cryptosporidiosis in the country. Two years later, the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network (ACNN) was set up to provide public health authorities with data on the incidence and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in France. Constituted on a voluntary basis, ACNN includes 38 hospital parasitology laboratories (mainly in university hospitals). Each laboratory is engaged to notify new cases of confirmed human cryptosporidiosis, store specimens (e.g. stools, duodenal aspirates or biopsies) and related clinical and epidemiological data, using datasheet forms. From January 2006 to December 2009, 407 cryptosporidiosis cases were notified in France and 364 specimens were collected. Of the notified cases, 74 were children under four years of age, accounting for 18.2%. HIV infected and immunocompetent patients represented 38.6% (n=157) and 28% (n=114) of cases, respectively. A marked seasonal pattern was observed each year, with increased number of cases in mid to late summer and the beginning of autumn. Genotyping of 345 isolates from 310 patients identified C. parvum in 168 (54.2%) cases, C. hominis in 113 (36.4%) and other species in 29 (9.4%), including C. felis (n=15), C. meleagridis (n=4), C. canis (n=4), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype (n=1), Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype (n=1) and new Cryptosporidium genotypes (n=4). These data represent the first multisite report of laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis in France.

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