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Abate T.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Shiferaw B.,Partnership for Economic Policy | Menkir A.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Wegary D.,CIMMYT | And 6 more authors.
Food Security | Year: 2015

Maize became increasingly important in the food security of Ethiopia following the major drought and famine that occurred in 1984. More than 9 million smallholder households, more than for any other crop in the country, grow maize in Ethiopia at present. Ethiopia has doubled its maize productivity and production in less than two decades. The yield, currently estimated at >3 metric tons/ha, is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, after South Africa; yield gains for Ethiopia grew at an annual rate of 68 kg/ha between 1990 and 2013, only second to South Africa and greater than Mexico, China, or India. The maize area covered by improved varieties in Ethiopia grew from 14 % in 2004 to 40 % in 2013, and the application rate of mineral fertilizers from 16 to 34 kg/ha during the same period. Ethiopia’s extension worker to farmer ratio is 1:476, compared to 1:1000 for Kenya, 1:1603 for Malawi and 1:2500 for Tanzania. Increased use of improved maize varieties and mineral fertilizers, coupled with increased extension services and the absence of devastating droughts are the key factors promoting the accelerated growth in maize productivity in Ethiopia. Ethiopia took a homegrown solutions approach to the research and development of its maize and other commodities. The lesson from Ethiopia’s experience with maize is that sustained investment in agricultural research and development and policy support by the national government are crucial for continued growth of agriculture. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Abate T.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Shiferaw B.,Partnership for Economic Policy | Menkir A.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Kebede Y.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | And 4 more authors.
Food Security | Year: 2015

Maize became increasingly important in the food security of Ethiopia following the major drought and famine that occurred in 1984. More than 9 million smallholder households, more than for any other crop in the country, grow maize in Ethiopia at present. Ethiopia has doubled its maize productivity and production in less than two decades. The yield, currently estimated at >3 metric tons/ha, is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, after South Africa; yield gains for Ethiopia grew at an annual rate of 68 kg/ha between 1990 and 2013, only second to South Africa and greater than Mexico, China, or India. The maize area covered by improved varieties in Ethiopia grew from 14 % in 2004 to 40 % in 2013, and the application rate of mineral fertilizers from 16 to 34 kg/ha during the same period. Ethiopia’s extension worker to farmer ratio is 1:476, compared to 1:1000 for Kenya, 1:1603 for Malawi and 1:2500 for Tanzania. Increased use of improved maize varieties and mineral fertilizers, coupled with increased extension services and the absence of devastating droughts are the key factors promoting the accelerated growth in maize productivity in Ethiopia. Ethiopia took a homegrown solutions approach to the research and development of its maize and other commodities. The lesson from Ethiopia’s experience with maize is that sustained investment in agricultural research and development and policy support by the national government are crucial for continued growth of agriculture. © 2015 The Author(s) Source


Tessema Y.,University of Queensland | Asafu-Adjaye J.,University of Queensland | Rodriguez D.,University of Queensland | Mallawaarachchi T.,University of Queensland | Shiferaw B.,Partnership for Economic Policy
Ecological Economics | Year: 2015

This study analyses the potential impact of conservation agriculture (CA) and its binding constraints for adoption in smallholder farming systems in a drought-prone district of central Ethiopia. We develop a dynamic household bio-economic model by taking into account the existing farming system, resource constraints and market imperfections. Climate-induced production risk is introduced into the model by estimating a weather-specific production function using data generated from a crop simulation model. It is found that the full package of CA, which consists of minimum tillage, mulching and crop diversification, does not appear to be in the best interest of smallholder farmers. However, loosely defined CA practises such as sole maize production with conservation tillage and maize-bean intercropping with conventional tillage, which are not currently practised in the study area, are likely to be adopted by the farmers. The results further demonstrate that time preference, risk aversion, limited credit and market access are key constraints to CA uptake. However, merely addressing these constraints may be insufficient incentives for smallholder farmers to fully adopt CA practises. It is important to identify conditions under which the full package CA can be effectively adopted before it is widely promoted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Mason N.M.,Michigan State University | Jayne T.S.,International Development | Shiferaw B.,Partnership for Economic Policy
Development Policy Review | Year: 2015

This article analyses trends in wheat consumption and imports in sub-Saharan Africa since 1980, and estimates the economic and demographic determinants of this rising demand for wheat. Results point to rising incomes, growing populations, and increasing women's labour-force participation as key drivers. Urban wheat-expenditure shares generally exceed rural ones and SSA's demand is met largely by imports and partly through domestic production on large-scale farms. Rising demand may therefore entail few farm-non-farm synergies and minimal prospects to spur broad-based economic development. The article concludes by discussing policy options for African countries to meet their staple food needs while also promoting pro-poor agricultural growth. © 2015 Overseas Development Institute. Source


Bezu S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Kassie G.T.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Shiferaw B.,Partnership for Economic Policy | Ricker-Gilbert J.,Purdue University
World Development | Year: 2014

This paper assesses rural households' decision to use improved maize varieties in Malawi and examines its impact on household welfare using a three-year household panel data. The distributional effect of maize technology adoption is investigated by looking at impacts across wealth and gender groups. We applied control function approach and IV regression to control for possible endogeneity of input subsidy and area under improved maize. We found that area under improved maize varieties is positively correlated with own maize consumption, income and asset holdings. We found evidence that improved maize adoption has a stronger impact on welfare of poorer households. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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