Partners in Health Research

Hanoi, Vietnam

Partners in Health Research

Hanoi, Vietnam

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Nadol P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hoang T.V.,Partners in Health Research | Le L.-V.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nguyen T.A.,National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2017

In Vietnam’s concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a ‘bridge’ of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam’s largest cities, in 2013–2014. Recruited FSWs were asked to refer one male client to the study. Demographic and risk behavior data were collected from FSWs and male clients by administered questionnaires. Biologic specimens collected from male clients were tested for HIV and opiates. Sampling weights, calculated based on the FSWs probability of being selected for enrolment, were applied to prevalence estimates for both FSWs and male clients. Logistic regression models were developed to obtain odds ratios for HIV infection among male clients. A total of 804 male clients were enrolled. Overall, HIV prevalence among male clients was 10.2%; HIV prevalence was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0–27.9%) among those reporting a history of illegal drug use and 32.4% (95% CI 20.2–47.7%) among those with opioids detected in urine. HIV prevalence among male clients did not differ across ‘bridging’ categories defined by condom use with FSWs and regular partners over the previous 6 months. HIV among male clients was associated with a reported history of illegal drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 1.87–7.56), current opioid use (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.02–6.36), and being referred by an FSW who self-reported as HIV-positive (OR 5.37; 95% CI 1.46–19.75). Self-reported HIV prevalence among enrolled FSWs was 2.8%. Based on HIV test results of male clients and self-reported status from FSWs, an estimated 12.1% of male client-FSW pairs were sero-discordant. These results indicate high HIV prevalence among male clients of FSWs, particularly among those with a history of drug use. Programs to expand HIV testing, drug-use harm reduction, and HIV treatment for HIV-infected male clients of FSWs should be considered as key interventions for controlling the HIV epidemic in Vietnam. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA)


Tran H.V.,Partners in Health Research | Le L.-V.N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Johnston L.G.,FHI 360 | Nadol P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2015

Accurate measurements of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among hidden and high-risk groups are vital for program planning and implementation. However, only two sampling methods are purported to provide representative estimates for populations without sampling frames: time-location sampling (TLS) and respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Each method is subject to potential biases and questionable reliability. In this paper, we evaluate surveys designed to estimate HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID) sampled through TLS versus RDS. In 2012, males aged ≥16 years who reported injecting drugs in the previous month and living in Haiphong, Vietnam, were sampled using TLS or RDS. Data from each survey were analyzed to compare HIV prevalence, related risk factors, socio-demographic characteristics, refusal estimates, and time and expenditures for field implementation. TLS (n = 432) and RDS (n = 415) produced similarly high estimates for HIV prevalence. Significantly lower proportions of PWID sampled through RDS received methadone treatment or met an outreach worker. Refusal estimates were lower for TLS than for RDS. Total expenditures per sample collected and number of person-days of staff effort were higher for TLS than for RDS. Both survey methods were successful in recruiting a diverse sample of PWID in Haiphong. In Vietnam, surveys of PWID are conducted throughout the country; although the refusal estimate was calculated to be much higher for RDS than TLS, RDS in Haiphong appeared to sample PWID with less exposure to services and required fewer financial and staff resources compared with TLS. © 2015, The New York Academy of Medicine.


Le L.V.N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nguyen T.A.,National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Tran H.V.,Partners in Health Research | Gupta N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2015

Objective: Women who sell sex and use drugs have dual risks for HIV infection. Despite increasing reports of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in Vietnam, FSW HIV interventions remain focused mainly on sexual risk reduction. We assessed the impact of drug use and inconsistent condom use on HIV infection among FSW in Vietnam, which few studies have quantified. Methods: We surveyed 5298 women aged ≥18 years who had sold sex in the past month from ten geographically dispersed provinces. We performed multivariate logistic regression on data from provinces with high (≥10%) or low (<10%) HIV prevalence among FSW. Results: Compared to FSW who never used illicit drugs, the odds of HIV infection among FSW who had ever injected drugs and those who reported non-injection drug use were 3.44 (CI 2.32-5.09) and 1.76 (CI 1.14-2.71), respectively, in high-prevalence provinces. FSW who always used condoms with clients had lower odds of HIV infection than those who did not (AOR = 0.71; CI 0.52-0.98). In low-prevalence provinces lifetime injection drug use (AOR 22.05, CI 12.00-40.49), but not non-injecting drug use or inconsistent condom use, was significantly associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Because injection drug use and inconsistent condom use were key risk factors for HIV infection in high-prevalence provinces, drug injection risk reduction should be as much a focus of HIV prevention as sexual risk reduction. Where HIV prevalence remains low in FSW, a more general emphasis on harm reduction for all drug users will benefit FSW. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kato M.,World Health Organization | Granich R.,World Health Organization | Bui D.D.,Ministry of Health | Tran H.V.,Partners in Health Research | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

Background: Few studies have assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent HIV transmission in Asian HIV epidemics. Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic with the highest prevalence among people who inject drugs. We investigated the impact of expanded HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and early ART, combined with other prevention interventions on HIV transmission. Methods: A deterministic mathematical model was developed using HIV prevalence trends in Can Tho province, Vietnam. Scenarios included offering periodic HTC and immediate ART with and without targeting subpopulations and examining combined strategies with methadone maintenance therapy and condom use. Results: From 2011 to 2050, maintaining current interventions will incur an estimated 18,115 new HIV infections and will cost US $22.1 million (reference scenario). Annual HTC and immediate treatment, if offered to all adults, will reduce new HIV infections by 14,513 (80%) and will cost US $76.9 million. Annual HTC and immediate treatment offered only to people who inject drugs will reduce new infections by 13,578 (75%) and will cost only US $23.6 million. Annual HTC and immediate treatment for key populations, combined with scale-up of methadone maintenance therapy and condom use, will reduce new infections by 14,723 (81%) with similar costs (US $22.7 million). This combination prevention scenario will reduce the incidence to less than 1 per 100,000 in 14 years and will result in a relative cost saving after 19 years. Conclusions: Targeted periodic HTC and immediate ART combined with other interventions is cost-effective and could lead to potential elimination of HIV in Can Tho. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Partners in Health Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, University of New South Wales and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Drug and alcohol dependence | Year: 2015

Women who sell sex and use drugs have dual risks for HIV infection. Despite increasing reports of drug use among female sex workers (FSW) in Vietnam, FSW HIV interventions remain focused mainly on sexual risk reduction. We assessed the impact of drug use and inconsistent condom use on HIV infection among FSW in Vietnam, which few studies have quantified.We surveyed 5298 women aged 18 years who had sold sex in the past month from ten geographically dispersed provinces. We performed multivariate logistic regression on data from provinces with high (10%) or low (<10%) HIV prevalence among FSW.Compared to FSW who never used illicit drugs, the odds of HIV infection among FSW who had ever injected drugs and those who reported non-injection drug use were 3.44 (CI 2.32-5.09) and 1.76 (CI 1.14-2.71), respectively, in high-prevalence provinces. FSW who always used condoms with clients had lower odds of HIV infection than those who did not (AOR=0.71; CI 0.52-0.98). In low-prevalence provinces lifetime injection drug use (AOR 22.05, CI 12.00-40.49), but not non-injecting drug use or inconsistent condom use, was significantly associated with HIV infection.Because injection drug use and inconsistent condom use were key risk factors for HIV infection in high-prevalence provinces, drug injection risk reduction should be as much a focus of HIV prevention as sexual risk reduction. Where HIV prevalence remains low in FSW, a more general emphasis on harm reduction for all drug users will benefit FSW.


Hoang T.V.,Partners in Health Research | Ha T.T.T.,FHI 360 | Hoang T.M.,Hanoi Medical University | Nhu N.T.,FHI 360 | And 3 more authors.
Harm Reduction Journal | Year: 2015

Background: As a dual response to the HIV epidemic and the high level of injecting drug use in Vietnam, the Ministry of Health (MOH) initiated a pilot methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) program in Hai Phong and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in early 2009. The objectives of the pilot were to provide evidence on whether MMT could be successfully implemented in Vietnam and scaled up to other localities. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among 965 opiate drug users admitted to the pilot. Data on demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, substance use behaviors (including heroin use), and blood-borne virus infection (HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) were collected at treatment initiation and then again at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month intervals thereafter. Results: Twenty-four months after treatment initiation, heroin use as measured by urine test or self-report had reduced from 100 % of participants at both sites to 14.6 % in Hai Phong and 22.9 % in HCMC. When adjusted for multiple factors in Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression modeling, independent predictors of continued heroin use after 24 months of MMT in HCMC were the following: poor methadone adherence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-7.8); currently on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (AOR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.4-2.4); currently on TB treatment (AOR = 2.2, 95 % CI 1.4-3.4); currently experiencing family conflict (AOR = 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1-2.4); and currently employed (AOR = 0.8, 95 % CI 0.6-1.0). For Hai Phong participants, predictors were the following: currently on ART (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.4-3.0); currently experiencing family conflict (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.0-3.9); and moderate adherence to methadone (AOR = 2.1, 95 % CI = 1.2-1.9). In Hai Phong, the percentage of participants who were employed had also increased by end of study from 35.0 to 52.8 %, while in HCMC the level remained relatively unchanged, between 52.2 and 55.1 %. Discussion: Study findings were used in multiple fora to convince policymakers and the public on the significant and vital role MMT can play in reducing heroin use and improving quality of life for individuals and families. Four years after this study was completed, Vietnam had expanded MMT to 162 clinics in 44 provinces serving 32,000 patients. © 2015 Hoang et al.


PubMed | Partners in Health Research, FHI 360, Hanoi Medical University and Vietnam Ministry of Health
Type: | Journal: Harm reduction journal | Year: 2015

As a dual response to the HIV epidemic and the high level of injecting drug use in Vietnam, the Ministry of Health (MOH) initiated a pilot methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) program in Hai Phong and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in early 2009. The objectives of the pilot were to provide evidence on whether MMT could be successfully implemented in Vietnam and scaled up to other localities.A prospective study was conducted among 965 opiate drug users admitted to the pilot. Data on demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, substance use behaviors (including heroin use), and blood-borne virus infection (HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) were collected at treatment initiation and then again at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month intervals thereafter.Twenty-four months after treatment initiation, heroin use as measured by urine test or self-report had reduced from 100% of participants at both sites to 14.6% in Hai Phong and 22.9% in HCMC. When adjusted for multiple factors in Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression modeling, independent predictors of continued heroin use after 24months of MMT in HCMC were the following: poor methadone adherence (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-7.8); currently on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (AOR=1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.4); currently on TB treatment (AOR=2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4); currently experiencing family conflict (AOR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4); and currently employed (AOR=0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.0). For Hai Phong participants, predictors were the following: currently on ART (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.4-3.0); currently experiencing family conflict (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.0-3.9); and moderate adherence to methadone (AOR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-1.9). In Hai Phong, the percentage of participants who were employed had also increased by end of study from 35.0 to 52.8%, while in HCMC the level remained relatively unchanged, between 52.2 and 55.1%.Study findings were used in multiple fora to convince policymakers and the public on the significant and vital role MMT can play in reducing heroin use and improving quality of life for individuals and families. Four years after this study was completed, Vietnam had expanded MMT to 162 clinics in 44 provinces serving 32,000 patients.


PubMed | Partners in Health Research
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine | Year: 2015

Accurate measurements of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among hidden and high-risk groups are vital for program planning and implementation. However, only two sampling methods are purported to provide representative estimates for populations without sampling frames: time-location sampling (TLS) and respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Each method is subject to potential biases and questionable reliability. In this paper, we evaluate surveys designed to estimate HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID) sampled through TLS versus RDS. In 2012, males aged 16years who reported injecting drugs in the previous month and living in Haiphong, Vietnam, were sampled using TLS or RDS. Data from each survey were analyzed to compare HIV prevalence, related risk factors, socio-demographic characteristics, refusal estimates, and time and expenditures for field implementation. TLS (n=432) and RDS (n=415) produced similarly high estimates for HIV prevalence. Significantly lower proportions of PWID sampled through RDS received methadone treatment or met an outreach worker. Refusal estimates were lower for TLS than for RDS. Total expenditures per sample collected and number of person-days of staff effort were higher for TLS than for RDS. Both survey methods were successful in recruiting a diverse sample of PWID in Haiphong. In Vietnam, surveys of PWID are conducted throughout the country; although the refusal estimate was calculated to be much higher for RDS than TLS, RDS in Haiphong appeared to sample PWID with less exposure to services and required fewer financial and staff resources compared with TLS.

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