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Upper Saint Clair, PA, United States

Zamboni W.C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Torchilin V.,Northeastern University | Patri A.K.,SAIC | Hrkach J.,BIND Biosciences | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Historically, treatment of patients with cancer using chemotherapeutic agents has been associated with debilitating and systemic toxicities, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, on the other hand, can specifically target cancer cells while avoiding their healthy neighbors, avoid rapid clearance from the body, and be administered without toxic solvents. They hold immense potential in addressing all of these issues, which has hampered further development of chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, such drug delivery systems will lead to cancer therapeutic modalities that are not only less toxic to the patient but also significantly more efficacious. In addition to established therapeutic modes of action, nanomaterials are opening up entirely new modalities of cancer therapy, such as photodynamic and hyperthermia treatments. Furthermore, nanoparticle carriers are also capable of addressing several drug delivery problems that could not be effectively solved in the past and include overcoming formulation issues, multidrug-resistance phenomenon, and penetrating cellular barriers that may limit device accessibility to intended targets, such as the blood-brain barrier. The challenges in optimizing design of nanoparticles tailored to specific tumor indications still remain; however, it is clear that nanoscale devices carry a significant promise toward new ways of diagnosing and treating cancer. This review focuses on future prospects of using nanotechnology in cancer applications and discusses practices and methodologies used in the development and translation of nanotechnology-based therapeutics. ©2012 AACR.

Nel A.M.,International Partnership For Microbicides | Coplan P.,Wyeth Research | Smythe S.C.,International Partnership For Microbicides | McCord K.,International Partnership For Microbicides | And 3 more authors.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2010

To assess the pharmacokinetics of dapivirine in plasma and dapivirine concentrations in cervicovaginal fluids (CVF) and cervicovaginal tissues following vaginal administration of dapivirine microbicide gel in healthy, HIV-negative women for 10 days. A randomized, double-blind, phase I study was conducted at a single research center in South Africa. A total of 18 women used dapivirine gel (0.001%, 0.005%, or 0.02%) once daily on Days 1 and 10 and twice daily on Days 2-9. Pharmacokinetics of dapivirine were assessed in plasma on Days 1 and 10. Dapivirine concentrations were measured in CVF on Days 1 and 10 and in cervicovaginal tissues on Day 10. Safety was evaluated through laboratory tests (hematology, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis), physical examinations, and assessment of adverse events. Plasma concentrations of dapivirine increased over time with gel dose and were greater on Day 10 (Cmax 31 to 471 pg/ml) than Day 1 (Cmax 23 to 80 pg/ml). Tmax was 10-12 h on Day 1, and 9 h on Day 10. Concentrations in CVF generally increased with dose but were highly variable among participants. Mean peak values ranged from 4.6-8.3 × 106 pg/ml on Day 1 and from 2.3-20.7 × 10 6 pg/ml on Day 10 across dose groups. Dapivirine was detectable in all tissue biopsies on Day 10 at concentrations of 1.0-356 × 10 3 pg/mg. Conclusions: Dapivirine was widely distributed throughout the lower genital tract with low systemic absorption when administered in a vaginal gel formulation for 10 consecutive days. The gel was safe and well tolerated. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Particle Sciences Inc. | Date: 2015-02-24

Drug delivery agents consisting of compounds that facilitate delivery of a wide range of pharmaceuticals; drug delivery agents consisting of micro and nanoparticles that facilitate delivery of a wide range of pharmaceuticals.

Particle Sciences Inc. | Date: 2014-08-12

Compositions and methods for treatment of conditions such as ear pain are disclosed.

Particle Sciences Inc. | Date: 2014-02-24

Compositions of one or more TLR agonists and one or more antigens adsorbed or attached to the same particles or to different particles are provided. Also provided are methods for producing and using these compositions.

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