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Northridge, CA, United States

Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2011

There is much interest within the accelerator physics community and DOEs Division of High Energy Physics for the development of a Muon Collider machine. A key challenge to realizing a Muon Collider is producing intense muon beams with small transverse emittances. For this project, we propose to explore a system which could deliver a muon beam with an emittance as low as 25 pi mm-mrad, sufficiently low to permit the operation of a high-luminosity Muon Collider. The approach taken in this proposal is to stage the final steps of the cooling process with an array of high-field solenoids culminating in a solenoid with a magnetic field in the range of 40 T to 50 T. The demonstration of a large bore 15T Nb3Sn based solenoid would represent an important step toward establishing a stand-alone 40-T, all superconducting solenoid system. Such a high-field (40T) magnet has been shown to be a possible solution for a final cooling scheme [http://indico.fnal.gov/getFile.py/access?contribId=12 & amp;sessionId=5 & amp;resId=0 & amp;materialId=slides & amp;confId=3474]. The role of such a system was noted recently by the reviewers of the national Muon Acceleration Program (MAP) who commented on the importance of this high-field solenoid system to the eventual success of the Muon Collider program [Ref http://indico.fnal.gov/getFile.py/access?resId=0 & amp;materialId=16 & amp;confId=3474. Earlier SBIR work at PBL, Inc. was aimed at developing the HTS inner coils necessary to reach 40-50 T. Two Phase I proposals were granted, and they were followed by two Phase II grants that are now in progress. The innovative features in these previous SBIRs were designs of the inner high-field HTS coils, whereas the outer coils used the same design and technology employed in the NHMFL hybrid system. Due to the operational requirements of fast discharge and heat input, the NHMFL coils used a cable-in-conduit design that provided for helium flow through the coils and thus very good cooling. However, this is accomplished at the expense of overall current density, and the result is a large and expensive coil system. The PBL team believes that this large and expensive coil system can be replaced with a less expensive system utilizing a much higher overall current density by adopting a new technology developed for high field dipole magnets. The Phase I SBIR being proposed here is part of the overall strategic plan by PBL to develop a complete high-field solenoid for a muon collider cooling channel, including high current density Nb3Sn outer solenoids. The SBIR Phase II work would build on this and prior work and result in a prototype Nb3Sn outsert solenoid with the ultimate goal that three (two from prior work and one from this work) can be assembled and nested together as a single solenoid having a field of ~40T. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The primary benefit is the development of high-field solenoids for final cooling of muons for a muon collider. Commercial applications include muon radiography for medical and Homeland Security applications


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 650.00K | Year: 2008

Cooled beams of muon particles for use in elementary particle physics experiments are needed to advance mankind¿s understanding of the fundamental nature of energy, the elementary constituents of matter, and the forces that control them. A major obstacle for building a case for future muon colliders or neutrino factories has been the lack of an experimental demonstration of the principle of ionization cooling of muons and, in particular, six-dimensional (6-D) cooling and emittance exchange. Past work has focused on lattice design, simulation studies and magnet design for a compact gas-filled storage ring for 6-D cooling of muon beams. The Phase I project extended those design results. The Phase I feasibility studies made advancements, as beam cooling was observed under two of the five cases studied. The Phase II project will continue the refinement and optimization of the preferred lattice of a 6-D muon cooling system using achromat bends. Work will continue to define and develop a credible beam injection/extraction scheme. A high temperature superconducting (HTS) solenoid, a crucial sub-system of the 6-D muon cooling machine, will be designed, built, and tested during this phase. Commercial Applications and other Benefits as described by the awardee: A robust, simple and economical cooling system to cool ion and particle beams has use in ion lasers, biotech, medical, and nanotechnology applications. Development of HTS magnet technology may revolutionize future medical and accelerator facilities. Various magnets in muon colliders, hadron colliders, and facilities for rare isotope beams benefit significantly from the ability of HTS to produce high fields and to handle and economically remove large energy depositions. The whole field of muon colliders and neutrino factories may benefit from HTS technology.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2004

76038-A major obstacle to building a case for future muon colliders or neutrino factories has been the lack of an experimental demonstration of the principle of ionization cooling of muons. Based on past designs and simulation studies, it is possible that a compact circular storage ring filled with compressed hydrogen gas not only could provide such a demonstration, but also could be built and operated relatively quickly and economically. This project will develop a detailed engineering design of a compressed hydrogen-gas-filled storage ring for cooling muon beams, identify the costs of the major subsystems, and possibly prototype one of the subsystems. Phase I will demonstrate feasibility by determining the preferred lattice for the machine, performing a computer simulation of particle beam evolution during storage, and developing conceptual designs for the magnets, the radio frequency system, and the injection scheme. An investigation of possible applications for such a device outside the high energy physics community will also be made. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits as described by the awardee: Cooled beams of muon particles for use in elementary particle physics experiments could advance mankind¿s understanding of the fundamental nature of energy, the elementary constituents of matter, and the forces that control them. A robust, simple, and economical ring cooler system also could be used to cool ion and particle beams in ion lasers and medical applications.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2009

A key challenge for a muon collider is to cool (i.e., reduce the emittance of) the muons, which is achieved by strongly focusing them as they pass through absorbers, followed by their re-acceleration in RF cavities. This focusing process requires strong solenoidal magnetic fields that, in practice, penetrate into the RF cavities. Experiments have shown these solenoidal fields can damage vacuum cavities and reduce operating gradients, apparently from field-emitted `dark currents¿ that are accelerated by the RF and focused by the solenoids onto other surfaces. A promising solution to this problem is ¿Magnetic Insulation,¿ an established technique for suppressing breakdown in dc or pulsed voltage applications; however, its use with RF is a recently proposed concept. This project will design a magnetically insulated accelerating cavity with cavity walls shaped to closely follow the magnetic field lines on all surfaces with significant RF surface gradients. With this configuration, all field-emitted `dark currents¿ will be returned by these magnetic fields to their surface of origin with non-damaging energies less than 1 KeV. Commercial Applications and other Benefits as described by the awardee: The technology should help enable the construction of a muon collider, which would have an important advantage over an electron linear collider (such as the ILC): due to the high mass of the muons, it¿s beams could be accelerated and stored in rings, allowing for a smaller machine foot print and, hopefully, lower cost


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

The next generation of particle accelerators, including a proposed LHC upgrade, will move to higher energy and luminosity in order to continue the exploration beyond the limits of the present LHC. This will require new technologyin particular, higher field (20T or more) dipoles as well as better interaction-region quadrupoles to focus the beams at the collision points. This proposal seeks to address this need by applying high-temperature- superconductors (HTS) in a hybrid design with the more-conventional low-temperature- superconductors (LTS) Nb3Sn and NbTi. We will explore designs with Bi-2212 Rutherford cable and second-generation YBCO tape. A hybrid dipole magnet will be designed, based on the parameters of one applicationthe proposed energy upgrade to the LHC. This Phase I will build on an earlier Phase I SBIR which showed that YBCO tape could be wound on the pole of a dipole magnet without serious degradation. The experimental part of the present Phase I will develop techniques to wind the midplane turns of a YBCO tape dipole, and the coil will be tested at 77 K in liquid nitrogen to insure that there is no large degradation. A hybrid dipole based on the design developed in Phase I will be built and tested in Phase II. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Since the cost of HTS superconductors likely will remain high, it is important to develop hybrid HTS/LTS designs, in order to make these magnets commercially attractive. Commercial spin-offs in the areas of medical accelerators and security screening can follow the development of this technology, just as the development of MRI magnets followed LTS magnet technology developed for earlier HEP accelerator magnets. The knowledge gained from the conductor bend tests and coil performance tests will provide valuable feedback to the conductor manufacturers in their efforts to improve these conductors to better meet the needs of the magnet community.

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