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Garren A.,Particle Beam Lasers, Inc. | Berg J.S.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Cline D.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ding X.,University of California at Los Angeles | Kirk H.G.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

Six dimensional cooling of large emittance μ+ and μ- beams is required in order to obtain the desired luminosity for a muon collider. We propose to use a ring cooler that employs both dipoles and solenoids with the additional requirement that the arcs of the ring be achromatic. We describe the lattice and the beam dynamics of the proposed ring, and demonstrate that the lattice gives substantial cooling in all 6 phase space dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All right reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

The next generation of particle accelerators, including a proposed LHC upgrade, will move to higher energy and luminosity in order to continue the exploration beyond the limits of the present LHC. This will require new technologyin particular, higher field (20T or more) dipoles as well as better interaction-region quadrupoles to focus the beams at the collision points. This proposal seeks to address this need by applying high-temperature- superconductors (HTS) in a hybrid design with the more-conventional low-temperature- superconductors (LTS) Nb3Sn and NbTi. We will explore designs with Bi-2212 Rutherford cable and second-generation YBCO tape. A hybrid dipole magnet will be designed, based on the parameters of one applicationthe proposed energy upgrade to the LHC. This Phase I will build on an earlier Phase I SBIR which showed that YBCO tape could be wound on the pole of a dipole magnet without serious degradation. The experimental part of the present Phase I will develop techniques to wind the midplane turns of a YBCO tape dipole, and the coil will be tested at 77 K in liquid nitrogen to insure that there is no large degradation. A hybrid dipole based on the design developed in Phase I will be built and tested in Phase II. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Since the cost of HTS superconductors likely will remain high, it is important to develop hybrid HTS/LTS designs, in order to make these magnets commercially attractive. Commercial spin-offs in the areas of medical accelerators and security screening can follow the development of this technology, just as the development of MRI magnets followed LTS magnet technology developed for earlier HEP accelerator magnets. The knowledge gained from the conductor bend tests and coil performance tests will provide valuable feedback to the conductor manufacturers in their efforts to improve these conductors to better meet the needs of the magnet community.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2012

High magnetic fields approaching 25 T are needed for significant advances in the physics reach of colliders for high energy physics. The new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN needs high field magnets for planned energy and luminosity upgrades. The envisioned Muon Collider needs such magnets in several areas of the machine. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) currently offer the best chance of producing hybrid magnets for these applications because HTS has a significantly higher critical current density than any other superconductor at high fields. In Phase I, we propose to build coil segments in several configurations using YBCO HTS tape. This will reveal the challenges to be faced in using this material. We will consider design variations and construction techniques required to build working coils. Once built, we will measure the performance of these coil segments in liquid nitrogen. In Phase II, we would build coils and assemble small magnets using the parameters indicated in Phase I. These magnets would be tested as inserts in available dipole magnets to study their performance in background fields. Such tests would simulate the conditions of an eventual hybrid magnet in which Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) and HTS are paired to produce 20 T and above. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The use of HTS in a practicable and proven way would be beneficial in many technological areas that require magnetic fields to be produced economically (for the overall system) and reliably. Such areas include the production and distribution of electrical energy, the growing communications industry, and the accelerating demands for medical and security-related devices. It would also advance the technology of producing newer and better types of HTS material as the vendors of these products respond to and are supported by the developing demand for their efforts.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.44K | Year: 2015

Proposed designs for a Future Circular Collider (FCC) to collide protons with a center-of-mass energy of 100 TeV call for dipoles with fields up to 20 Tesla (T). This is significantly beyond the present technology and requires using High Temperature Superconductors (HTS). The recent Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5), organized by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), strongly supports the U.S. maintaining its leadership in superconducting magnet technology. This STTR proposes to design, build, and test a proof-of-principle hybrid dipole that uses HTS in its highest-field regions and less-expensive low-temperature superconductors, Nb3Sn and NbTi, where they suffice. During Phase I, a coil block with ReBCO tape with Kapton insulation was fabricated and tested, confirming that winding had no measurable degradation. A major concern in the magnets built with ReBCO is the large field errors associated with the conductor magnetization in the tape geometry. The major discovery during Phase I was finding a solution to reduce those errors considerably. Based on this and work performed under previous SBIR/STTRs and other programs, HTS coils will be designed and built in Phase II and then integrated with the existing Nb3Sn common coil dipole. This provides a unique opportunity to test the concept in a proof-of-principle hybrid magnet with field approaching 15 T. A 20 T hybrid dipole design will also be developed with the goal of satisfying the requirements of accelerator magnets and reducing cost. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Since the cost of HTS superconductors is high and likely to remain so, it is important to minimize HTS usage. Commercial spin-offs in the areas of energy technologies (SMES, wind turbines), medical accelerators, security screening, and motors or generators for direct-drive wind turbines can be enabled by this technology, just as the development of NMR and MRI magnets was enabled by magnet R&D for previous generations of high-energy- physics accelerators. The knowledge gained from this program will provide valuable feedback to the conductor manufacturers in their efforts to improve these conductors to better meet the needs of the magnet community.


Ding X.,University of California at Los Angeles | Berg J.S.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Cline D.,University of California at Los Angeles | Garren A.,Particle Beam Lasers, Inc. | Kirk H.G.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2014

Six dimensional cooling of large emittance μ+ and μ- beams is required in order to obtain the desired luminosity for a muon collider. In our previous study, we demonstrated that a 6D "Garren" ring cooler using both dipoles and solenoids in four 900 achromatic arcs can give substantial cooling in all six phase space dimensions. In this paper, we describe the injection/extraction requirements of this four-sided ring. We also present the performance of an achromat-based 6D "Garren" snake cooler. The achromatic design permits the design to easily switch between a closed ring and a snaking geometry on injection or extraction from the ring. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


A dipole-magnet system and method for producing high-magnetic-fields, including an open-region located in a radially-central-region to allow particle-beam transport and other uses, low-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of low-temperature-superconducting-wire located in radially-outward-regions to generate high magnetic-fields, high-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of high-temperature-superconducting-tape located in radially-inward-regions to generate even higher magnetic-fields and to reduce erroneous fields, support-structures to support the coils against large Lorentz-forces, a liquid-helium-system to cool the coils, and electrical-contacts to allow electric-current into and out of the coils. The high-temperature-superconducting-tape may be comprised of bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxide or rare-earth-metal, barium-copper-oxide (ReBCO) where the rare-earth-metal may be yttrium, samarium, neodymium, or gadolinium. Advantageously, alignment of the large-dimension of the rectangular-cross-section or curved-cross-section of the high-temperature-superconducting-tape with the high-magnetic-field minimizes unwanted erroneous magnetic fields. Alignment may be accomplished by proper positioning, tilting the high-temperature-superconducting-coils, forming the high-temperature-superconducting-coils into a curved-cross-section, placing nonconducting wedge-shaped-material between windings, placing nonconducting curved-and-wedge-shaped-material between windings, or by a combination of these techniques.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2013

The Division of High Energy Physics of the US Department of Energy has expressed keen interest in technologies for neutrino factories and/or muon colliders as evidenced by its prior and recent call for proposals. The dipole magnets in the ring of a muon collider should generate the highest feasible magnetic field, because the higher the field, the smaller the ring, and therefore the more numerous the muon/muon interactions before the muons decay. The magnets require shielding from the intense muon- decay radiation: electrons (that spiral inward toward the rings axis), and electron-generated synchrotron radiation (that flies tangentially away from the rings axis). Relatively little of the radiation strays much from the plane of the ring. One can shield the coils with a tungsten pipe that surrounds the muon beam. The pipe wall needs to be thick near the horizontal plane of the ring, but towards the vertical plane can be progressively thinner. A cross section that is elliptical or rectangular, rather than circular, can halve the cost of shielding, which may be tens of millions of dollars. In addition, the magnet windings can hug the beam pipe more closely and therefore be more efficient. Appropriate coil cross sections are elliptical-cosine-theta and rectangular: racetrack coils with, if necessary, ends upturned to dodge the beam pipe. One or more of its inboard coils may be Inside-Support-Free, supported magnetically rather than mechanically. This SBIR will use the radiation-simulation code MARS to design shields for collider energies of 1.5 and 3 TeV and then generate conceptual coil designs for dipoles of 10 T, 15 T and 20 Tthe latter employing high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The designs will include predictions of field quality, temperature margin, stress, strain and deformation, for adequate margins on field quality, magnet reliability and safety. Phase II proposes to: 1) Design magnets of 15 T and 20 T; 2) Consider combined-function magnets, that incorporate quadrupole gradients in the dipole, to avoid neutrino-radiation hot-spots; and 3) Fabricate a short dipole of reduced size and field. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: This SBIR is to advance the technology for a muon- collider ring-dipole magnet with elliptical or rectangular shielding. Applications include magnetic confinement of fusion-energy plasmas, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and, perhaps, muon radiography for medical and Homeland Security applications.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2011

There is much interest within the accelerator physics community and DOEs Division of High Energy Physics for the development of a Muon Collider machine. A key challenge to realizing a Muon Collider is producing intense muon beams with small transverse emittances. For this project, we propose to explore a system which could deliver a muon beam with an emittance as low as 25 pi mm-mrad, sufficiently low to permit the operation of a high-luminosity Muon Collider. The approach taken in this proposal is to stage the final steps of the cooling process with an array of high-field solenoids culminating in a solenoid with a magnetic field in the range of 40 T to 50 T. The demonstration of a large bore 15T Nb3Sn based solenoid would represent an important step toward establishing a stand-alone 40-T, all superconducting solenoid system. Such a high-field (40T) magnet has been shown to be a possible solution for a final cooling scheme [http://indico.fnal.gov/getFile.py/access?contribId=12 & amp;sessionId=5 & amp;resId=0 & amp;materialId=slides & amp;confId=3474]. The role of such a system was noted recently by the reviewers of the national Muon Acceleration Program (MAP) who commented on the importance of this high-field solenoid system to the eventual success of the Muon Collider program [Ref http://indico.fnal.gov/getFile.py/access?resId=0 & amp;materialId=16 & amp;confId=3474. Earlier SBIR work at PBL, Inc. was aimed at developing the HTS inner coils necessary to reach 40-50 T. Two Phase I proposals were granted, and they were followed by two Phase II grants that are now in progress. The innovative features in these previous SBIRs were designs of the inner high-field HTS coils, whereas the outer coils used the same design and technology employed in the NHMFL hybrid system. Due to the operational requirements of fast discharge and heat input, the NHMFL coils used a cable-in-conduit design that provided for helium flow through the coils and thus very good cooling. However, this is accomplished at the expense of overall current density, and the result is a large and expensive coil system. The PBL team believes that this large and expensive coil system can be replaced with a less expensive system utilizing a much higher overall current density by adopting a new technology developed for high field dipole magnets. The Phase I SBIR being proposed here is part of the overall strategic plan by PBL to develop a complete high-field solenoid for a muon collider cooling channel, including high current density Nb3Sn outer solenoids. The SBIR Phase II work would build on this and prior work and result in a prototype Nb3Sn outsert solenoid with the ultimate goal that three (two from prior work and one from this work) can be assembled and nested together as a single solenoid having a field of ~40T. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The primary benefit is the development of high-field solenoids for final cooling of muons for a muon collider. Commercial applications include muon radiography for medical and Homeland Security applications


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2010

The concept of a 1.5 TeV


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

To search beyond the Higgs requires particle accelerators of unprecedented energy, requiring dipoles of very high field to bend the particle beam to the desired radius. This proposal explores a new approach to these high field dipoles – a common coil magnet. A common coil magnet may be less expensive and easier to manufacture than the more conventional cosine theta magnets that have been used in most high energy colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Although several proof-of-principle common coil magnets have been built, none had the high field quality required for accelerator magnets. This proposal seeks to demonstrate the technology of high field quality common coil dipoles suitable for use in particle accelerators through the use of pole coils. These pole coils have not been built and integrated with the proofof- principle main coils before. In Phase I, analytical tools will be used to (a) design a number of geometries of pole coils that can provide accelerator field quality and (b) design the mechanical support structure necessary to hold the pole coils and to withstand the large Lorentz forces. At least two types of pole coils such as those designed in Phase I will then be built in Phase II and integrated with the existing common coil dipole at Brookhaven National Lab to demonstrate that the coils perform as predicted. Based on this experience, another deliverable of Phase II will be an engineering design of a high field (~16 Teslas) common coil dipole that minimizes cost, provides an adequate support structure to withstand the large Lorentz forces associated with the high field magnets, and is able to be built industrially in large quantities. Our effort will primarily be based on Low Temperature Superconductors (Nb3Sn and perhaps also NbTi); however, use of High Temperature Superconductors will also be examined. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Not only is the common coil design uniquely suited to the case of colliding beam particle accelerators, the technology developed during Phase I and Phase II will also be essential for commercial superconducting magnets. The essential technologies include: 1) methods for achieving good field quality; and 2) methods for supporting the superconductor against the large Lorentz forces experienced in high field magnets. High quality, high field magnets will find commercial use in magnetic resonant imaging, proton and ion beam therapy, wind power and superconducting magnet energy storage applications. Key words: common coil, high field dipoles, Nb3Sn superconducting dipole magnets

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