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Raso T.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Teixeira R.H.F.,Parque Zoologico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros | Carrasco A.O.T.,UNICENTRO | Junior J.P.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Pinto A.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

The hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest species of psittacine birds. It is considered endangered and illegal trade is one of the main factors involved in its decline. In this study, 26 hyacinth macaws maintained under poor husbandry conditions and destined for the illegal trade were confiscated in São Paulo State, Brazil. These birds were evaluated for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila psittaci by complement fixation test and C. psittaci DNA by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that 65.4% of the macaws were positive for at least one test. Birds with subclinical infections can shed chlamydiae intermittently over long periods, contributing to the dissemination of the agent. Global trade is one of the most important drivers of disease emergence. The high percentage of positive samples in this study emphasizes the potential risk that the illegal trade of wild birds represents for both human and animal health. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Vanstreels R.E.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Pessutti C.,Parque Zoologico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2010

The Maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus is the largest canid of South America and is considered Near Threatened by IUCN. Annual studbook questionnaires were sent to 62 institutions in Brazil, and data were obtained for 932 animals (422.406.104) from 1969 to 2006. The historical trend has shown that the Brazilian captive population has progressed towards a maximum size plateau of 140 individuals; several demographic parameters indicated a poor overall breeding success in the population (only 14% of all the potential founders have effectively bred, mean breeding population each year was 18%), low gene flow (only 22% of the animals were transferred between institutions), high infant mortality (79% of all captive-born cubs die within their first year) and poor management of over-represented individuals (20% of the breeding animals had ten or more cubs). A high influx of wild-caught animals was noted (median 12 captures year-1), with most being captured in the economically developed south-eastern region. It is concluded that the captive population is demographically unstable and highly dependent on the influx of wild-caught animals. Broader collaborations with field conservationists and paired research programmes are advised to maximize future ex situ contribution to the conservation of Maned wolf in Brazil. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Zoological Society of London. Source


Raso T.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira V.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Teixeira R.H.F.,Parque Zoologico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros | Pinto A.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) has been detected in 460 avian species, among them the most frequent are the Psittaciformes, Columbiformes, Anseriformes and raptors. In Brazil, the main avian species recognized as healthy carriers belong to the order Psittaciformes and Columbiformes, but very few studies have been done in other bird families. Reports of the occurrence of this disease in the clinical form are rare in the Ramphastids; consequently, they are not commonly evaluated for this agent. The present study reports the investigation of C. psittaci in 25 captive ramphastids from a zoological park in São Paulo State, Brazil. Swabs samples from the cloaca were submitted to semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (semi-nested PCR) for direct detection of the microorganism. Additionally, blood samples obtained from these birds were submitted to the Complement Fixation Test (CFT) for detection of antibodies anti-C. psittaci. The presence of C. psittaci was not detected in the cloacal swab samples tested by the PCR. Nevertheless, 16% (4/25) of the bird's sera were positive by the CFT. Among the species with positive results, there are the saffron toucanet (Pteroglossus bailloni) and blacknecked- aracari (Pteroglossus aracari), two species with no descriptions of the survey of C. psittaci published in the literature. Intermittent elimination of C. psittaci is a feature of chronically infected birds; however the absence of a positiveantigen sample did not guarantee that the bird is Chlamydophila-free. The serological results obtained show that the ramphastids tested were previously exposed to the pathogen and developed immune response, but showed no clinical signs of the disease and didn't eliminate regularly the organism in their feces in the moment of the sample collection. Source


Prioste F.E.S.,Laboratorio Of Patologia Comparada Of Animais Selvagens | Zwarg T.,Laboratorio Of Patologia Comparada Of Animais Selvagens | Teixeira R.H.,Parque Zoologico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros | Vanstreels R.E.T.,Laboratorio Of Patologia Comparada Of Animais Selvagens | And 2 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

Golden conures or ararajubas (Guaruba guarouba) are endangered parrots endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest. Body mass, blood cell counts, and total plasma protein were determined for 70 clinically healthy golden conures captive at zoologic parks and private breeder facilities in Brazil. Hematologic results (mean ± SD) were: Erythrocytes 3.6 ± 0.5 × 106 cells/mm3, hemoglobin 12.8 ± 1.4 g/dl, packed cell volume 46 ± 3.8%, mean corpuscular volume 132 ± 20 fl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 36 ± 5.7 pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 28 ± 3.5%, thrombocytes 26.3 ± 9.3 × 103 cells/mm3, leukocytes 11.9 ± 4.5 × 103 cells/mm3, heterophils 6284 ± 2715 cells/mm3, lymphocytes 5473 ± 2408 cells/mm3, monocytes 113 ± 162 cells/mm3, eosinophils 10 ± 42 cells/mm3, basophils 27 ± 64 cells/mm3. Body mass was 254 ± 24.9 g and total plasma protein (TPP) was 3.54 ± 0.58 g/dl. No statistical differences were observed between genders within age groups. Differences between juveniles (J) and adults (A) were identified for TPP (J < A), MCH (J > A), and MCHC (J > A). These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic results for the species. Hematology may be an important tool for population health investigations on free-ranging golden conure populations and will also be essential to survey the health of release candidates in future reintroduction programs. © American Association of Avian Pathologists 2012. Source


Andre M.R.,Sao Paulo State University | Adania C.H.,Centro Brasileiro Of Conservacao Of Felideos Neotropicais | Teixeira R.H.F.,Parque Zoologico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros | Allegretti S.M.,City University of Sao Paulo | MacHado R.Z.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2011

Large and small piroplasms have been observed in the blood smears of various wild carnivores, but few studies utilizing molecular characterization have been done. The goal of this present study was to investigate the presence of Babesia sp. by molecular and serologic techniques in exotic and neotropical carnivores maintained in captivity at Brazilian zoos. Blood and sera samples were collected from 146 Brazilian wild felids, 21 exotic felids, 1 genet (Genetta tigrina), 3 European wolves (Canis lupus), and 94 Brazilian wild canids in Brazilian zoos in the São Paulo and Mato Grosso states and in the Federal District. A total of 53 wild felids (31.74%) and 10 wild canids (10.31%) were seropositive for Babesia canis by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Antibodies were detected in ocelots, little-spotted cats, margays, pampas cats, jaguars, pumas, jaguarundis, crab-eating foxes, and bush dogs. Babesia sp. DNA, with high similarity to B. leo, was detected in one pampas cat and one genet. © 2011 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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