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The Hague, Netherlands

Cardona Cano S.,Utrecht Research Group Eating Disorders | Cardona Cano S.,Parnassia Bavo Psychiatric Institute | Cardona Cano S.,Altrecht Mental Health Institute | Merkestein M.,University Utrecht | And 5 more authors.
CNS Drugs | Year: 2012

Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone. It increases food intake by interacting with hypothalamic and brainstem circuits involved in energy balance, as well as reward-related brain areas. A heightened gut-brain ghrelin axis is an emerging feature of certain eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and Prader-Willi syndrome. In common obesity, ghrelin levels are lowered, whereas post-meal ghrelin levels remain higher than in lean individuals. Agents that interfere with ghrelin signalling have therapeutic potential for eating disorders, including obesity. However, most of these drugs are only in the preclinical phase of development. Data obtained so far suggest that ghrelin agonists may have potential in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, while ghrelin antagonists seem promising for other eating disorders such as obesity and Prader-Willi syndrome. However, large clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these drugs. © 2012 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source

Dingemans A.E.,Center for Eating Disorders Ursula | Van Rood Y.R.,Leiden University | De Groot I.,Parnassia Bavo Psychiatric Institute | Van Furth E.F.,Center for Eating Disorders Ursula
International Journal of Eating Disorders | Year: 2012

Objective: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), an abnormal preoccupation with perceived defects in one or more body parts, and eating disorders (ED) share several essential clinical features, making it sometimes difficult to differentiate between the two disorders. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of BDD in patients with ED and to compare characteristics of ED patients with and without BDD. Method: We measured dysmorphic appearance concerns and behaviors, ED symptoms, general psychopathology, and quality of life in 158 patients seeking treatment for ED. Results: Forty-five percent screened positive for BDD. Patients with both disorders (ED + BDD) had significantly more dysmorphic appearance concerns, had more psychopathology, and were dissatisfied with a larger number of body parts than patients with ED only. The differences remained significant even after correcting for severity of eating disorder psychopathology. Discussion: This finding suggests that BDD is a distinct comorbid disorder in almost half of the patients with ED. It is thus important to recognize and treat the manifestation of BDD in patients with both disorders. Given that the treatment of BDD is different from that of ED, it is important to recognize BDD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Van Balkom I.D.C.,Lentis Psychiatric Institute | Van Balkom I.D.C.,University of Groningen | Vuijk P.J.,VU University Amsterdam | Franssens M.,Lentis Psychiatric Institute | And 4 more authors.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2012

Aim The aim of the study was to collect detailed data on behavioural, adaptive, and psychological functioning in 10 individuals with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), with specific attention to manifestations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method The participants (four females, six males), residing in the Netherlands and Belgium, were ascertained through the Dutch national PTHS support group. Median age of participants was 10 years, the age range was between 32 and 289 months. They underwent psychiatric examinations and neuropsychological measurements using a comprehensive assessment battery. Additionally, parental information was gathered through standardized interviews and questionnaires. Findings were compared with those from the literature. Results All participants showed profound intellectual disability, amiable demeanour with minimal maladaptive behaviours, severe impairments of communication and language, and intense, frequent motor stereotypies. Impairments in all participants were beyond what would be expected for cognitive abilities, fitting a classification of ASD. Interpretation Patients with PTHS are characterized not only by specific physical and genetic manifestations but also by specific behavioural and cognitive characteristics. Studying behaviour and cognition may improve diagnosis and prognosis, allows recognition of comorbidities, and contributes to adequate counselling of families. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press. Source

Laroi F.,University of Liege | Sommer I.E.,University Utrecht | Blom J.D.,Parnassia BAVO Group | Blom J.D.,University of Groningen | And 12 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2012

Despite a growing interest in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in different clinical and nonclinical groups, the phenomenological characteristics of such experiences have not yet been reviewed and contrasted, limiting our understanding of these phenomena on multiple empirical, theoretical, and clinical levels. We look at some of the most prominent descriptive features of AVHs in schizophrenia (SZ). These are then examined in clinical conditions including substance abuse, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, dementia, late-onset SZ, mood disorders, borderline personality disorder, hearing impairment, and dissociative disorders. The phenomenological changes linked to AVHs in prepsychotic stages are also outlined, together with a review of AVHs in healthy persons. A discussion of key issues and future research directions concludes the review. © 2012 The Author. Source

Pruijssers A.C.,INHolland University of Applied Sciences | van Meijel B.,INHolland University of Applied Sciences | van Meijel B.,Parnassia Bavo Psychiatric Institute | Maaskant M.,Maastricht University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2014

Background: Anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) often occur simultaneously in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Understanding the associations between anxiety and CB may contribute to more accurate diagnoses and management of both anxiety and CB in this population. Aims: To examine the relationship between anxiety and CB. Methods: A literature review covering the period from January 2000 to January 2012. Results: Seven studies about the relationship between psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, and CB were identified. These studies confirm the relationship between anxiety and CB in people with ID, although the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear. Conclusions: The study points toward the existence of a moderate association between anxiety and CB. Further research is needed to clarify the complex nature of the association between anxiety and CB. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD. Source

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