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Mehta S.H.,Parkinsons Disease And Movement Disorders Center | Adler C.H.,Parkinsons Disease And Movement Disorders Center
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports | Year: 2016

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Adler C.H.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | Shill H.A.,Sun Health Research Institute | Beach T.G.,Sun Health Research Institute
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

Background: Essential tremor (ET) is a very common disorder and proving that there is a relationship to another common movement disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD), has been debated for years. Methods: Review of the literature for links between ET and PD primarily focused on neuropathology as well as neurochemistry, epidemiology, genetics, olfactory function, and neuroimaging. Results: While there may be some evidence to suggest an increase in occurrence of PD in people who were previously diagnosed with ET, neuropathologic studies of ET with similarly assessed control subjects do not find an increase in Lewy bodies in the ET group. Studies of incidental Lewy body disease do not find an increase in ET or action tremor compared to controls. ET subjects as a group do not have neurochemical changes that are found in PD, do not respond to medications used to treat PD, are not hyposmic as is found in PD, and neuroimaging studies do not find changes of PD when groups are compared. Conclusion: The overwhelming amount of evidence suggests that any link between ET and PD is coincidental and not biological. Prospective, longitudinal cohort studies with standardized clinical and biomarker assessments followed by neuropathologic confirmation are needed. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.


Mehta S.H.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | Adler C.H.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center
Current neurology and neuroscience reports | Year: 2016

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future.


Pahwa R.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Tanner C.M.,The Parkinsons Institute | Tanner C.M.,University of California at San Francisco | Hauser R.A.,University of South Florida | And 8 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2015

ADS-5102 is a long-acting, extended-release capsule formulation of amantadine HCl administered once daily at bedtime. This study investigated the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of ADS-5102 in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 83 PD patients with troublesome dyskinesia assigned to placebo or one of three doses of ADS-5102 (260 mg, 340 mg, 420 mg) administered daily at bedtime for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy analysis compared change from baseline to week 8 in Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) total score for 340 mg ADS-5102 versus placebo. Secondary outcome measures included change in UDysRS for 260 mg, 420 mg, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), patient diary, Clinician's Global Impression of Change, and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). ADS-5102 340 mg significantly reduced dyskinesia versus placebo (27% reduction in UDysRS, P=0.005). In addition, ADS-5102 significantly increased ON time without troublesome dyskinesia, as assessed by PD patient diaries, at 260 mg (P=0.004), 340 mg (P=0.008) and 420 mg (P=0.018). Adverse events (AEs) were reported for 82%, 80%, 95%, and 90% of patients in the placebo, 260-mg, 340-mg, and 420-mg groups, respectively. Constipation, hallucinations, dizziness, and dry mouth were the most frequent AEs. Study withdrawal rates were 9%, 15%, 14%, and 40% for the placebo, 260-mg, 340-mg, and 420-mg groups, respectively. All study withdrawals in the active treatment groups were attributable to AEs. ADS-5102 was generally well tolerated and resulted in significant and dose-dependent improvements in dyskinesia in PD patients. © 2015 Adamas Pharmaceuticals, Inc.


Adler C.H.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | Beach T.G.,Banner Sun Health Research Institute | Hentz J.G.,Mayo Medical School | Shill H.A.,Banner Sun Health Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2014

Objectives: Determine diagnostic accuracy of a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) using neuropathologic diagnosis as the gold standard. Methods: Data from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders were used to determine the predictive value of a clinical PD diagnosis, using 2 clinical diagnostic confidence levels, PossPD (never treated or not clearly responsive) and ProbPD (responsive to medications). Neuropathologic diagnosis was the gold standard. Results: Based on first visit, 9 of 34 (26%) PossPD cases had neuropathologically confirmed PD while 80 of 97 (82%) ProbPD cases had confirmed PD. PD was confirmed in 8 of 15 (53%) ProbPD cases with <5 years of disease duration and 72 of 82 (88%) with $5 years of disease duration. Using final diagnosis at time of death, 91 of 107 (85%) ProbPD cases had confirmed PD. Clinical variables that improved diagnostic accuracy were medication response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, and hyposmia. Conclusions: Using neuropathologic findings of PD as the gold standard, this study establishes the novel findings of only 26% accuracy for a clinical diagnosis of PD in untreated or not clearly responsive subjects, 53%accuracy in early PD responsive to medication (<5 years' duration), and >85% diagnostic accuracy of longer duration, medication-responsive PD. Caution is needed when interpreting clinical studies of PD, especially studies of early disease that do not have autopsy confirmation. The need for a tissue or other diagnostic biomarker is reinforced. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that a clinical diagnosis of PD identifies patients who will have pathologically confirmed PD with a sensitivity of 88%and specificity of 68%. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.


Rascol O.,University of Sfax | Fitzer-Attas C.J.,Teva Pharmaceutical Industries | Hauser R.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | Jankovic J.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2011

Background: The ADAGIO study investigated whether rasagiline has disease-modifying effects in Parkinson's disease. Rasagiline 1 mg per day, but not 2 mg per day, was shown to be efficacious in the primary analysis. Here, we report additional secondary and post-hoc analyses of the ADAGIO study. Methods: ADAGIO was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre, delayed-start study, in which 1176 patients with untreated early Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned to receive rasagiline 1 mg or 2 mg per day for 72 weeks (early-start groups) or placebo for 36 weeks followed by rasagiline 1 mg or 2 mg per day for 36 weeks (delayed-start groups). We assessed the need for additional antiparkinsonian therapy and changes in non-motor experiences of daily living and fatigue scales (prespecified outcomes) and changes in unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) scores and subscores in placebo and active groups (post-hoc outcomes). The ADAGIO study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00256204. Findings: The need for additional antiparkinsonian therapy was reduced with rasagiline 1 mg (25 of 288 [9%] patients) and 2 mg (26 of 293 [9%]) versus placebo (108 of 593 [18%]; odds ratio for 1 mg rasagiline vs placebo 0·41, 95% CI 0·25-0·65, p=0·0002; 2 mg rasagiline vs placebo 0·41, 0·26-0·64, p=0·0001). At week 36, both doses significantly improved UPDRS motor subscores compared with placebo (1 mg rasagiline mean difference -1·88 [SE 0·35]; 2 mg rasagiline -2·18 [0·35]; both p<0·0001) and activities of daily living subscores (ADL; 1 mg rasagiline -0·86 [0·18]; 2 mg rasagiline -0·88 [0·18]; both p<0·0001), and 1 mg rasagiline significantly improved UPDRS mentation subscore (-0·22 [0·08]; p=0·004). At week 72, the only significant difference between early-start and delayed-start groups was for ADL subscore with the 1 mg dose (-0·62 [0·29]; p=0·035). When assessed for the effect on non-motor symptoms at week 36, both doses showed benefits on the Parkinson fatigue scale versus placebo (1 mg rasagiline mean difference -0·14 [SE 0·05], p=0·0032; 2 mg rasagiline -0·19 [0·05], p<0·0001), and the 1 mg dose showed benefits on the scale for non-motor experiences of daily living compared with placebo (mean difference -0·33 [0·17]; p=0·049). The rate of progression of total UPDRS score for patients in the placebo group was 4·3 points [SE 0·3] over 36 weeks, with extrapolation to about 6 units per year. In the placebo group, patients with the lowest quartile of baseline UPDRS scores (≤14; n=160) progressed more slowly than did those with highest scores (>25·5; n=145; mean difference -3·46 [SE 0·77]; p<0·0001). Interpretation: These findings show that rasagiline delayed the need for symptomatic antiparkinsonian drugs and emphasise the contribution of the UPDRS ADL in the response of the rasagiline 1 mg per day early-start versus delayed-start group. The rate of UPDRS deterioration was less than was anticipated from previous studies and correlated with baseline severity. Understanding of the pattern of UPDRS deterioration is essential to assess disease modification. Funding: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries and H Lundbeck A/S. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Mu L.,Hackensack University Medical Center | Sobotka S.,Hackensack University Medical Center | Sobotka S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Chen J.,Hackensack University Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2013

Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by cardinal motor manifestations and CNS pathology. Current drug therapies can often stabilize these cardinal motor symptoms, and attention has shifted to the other motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD that are resistant to drug therapy. Dysphagia in PD is perhaps the most important drug-resistant symptom because it leads to aspiration and pneumonia, the leading cause of death. Here, we present direct evidence for degeneration of the pharyngeal motor nerves in PD. We examined the cervical vagal nerve (cranial nerve X), pharyngeal branch of nerve X, and pharyngeal plexus innervating the pharyngeal muscles in 14 postmortem specimens, that is, from 10 patients with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Synucleinopathy in the pharyngeal nerves was detected using an immunohistochemical method for phosphorylated α-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein aggregates were revealed in nerve X and the pharyngeal branch of nerve X, and immunoreactive intramuscular nerve twigs and axon terminals within the neuromuscular junctions were identified in all of the PD patients but in none of the controls. These findings indicate that the motor nervous system of the pharynx is involved in the pathologic process of PD. Notably, PD patients who have had dysphagia had a higher density of α-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal nerves than those without dysphagia. These findings indicate that motor involvement of the pharynx in PD is one of the factors leading to oropharyngeal dysphagia commonly seen in PD patients. © 2013 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.


Adler C.H.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | Connor D.J.,Sun Health Research Institute | Hentz J.G.,Mayo Medical School | Sabbagh M.N.,Sun Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2010

Limited clinical information has been published on cases pathologically diagnosed with incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD). Standardized, longitudinal movement and cognitive data was collected on a cohort of subjects enrolled in the Sun Health Research Institute Brain and Body Donation Program. Of 277 autopsied subjects who had antemortem clinical evaluations within the previous 3 years, 76 did not have Parkinson's disease, a related disorder, or dementia of which 15 (20%) had ILBD. Minor extrapyramidal signs were common in subjects with and without ILBD. Cognitive testing revealed an abnormality in the ILBD group in the Trails B test only. ILBD cases had olfactory dysfunction; however, sample size was very small. This preliminary report revealed ILBD cases have movement and cognitive findings that for the most part were not out of proportion to similarly assessed and age-similar cases without Lewy bodies. Larger sample size is needed to have the power to better assess group differences. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.


Driver-Dunckley E.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | Adler C.H.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | Hentz J.G.,Mayo Medical School | Dugger B.N.,Banner Sun Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is well-established and may represent one of the earliest signs of the disease. Objective & methods: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of olfactory dysfunction, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), to clinical and pathological parameters of clinicopathologically diagnosed PD (n = 10), incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) (n = 13), and identically assessed controls who lacked a neurodegenerative disease (n = 69). Results: Mean UPSIT scores were significantly lower in PD (16.3, p < 0.001) and ILBD (22.2, p = 0.004) compared to controls (27.7). Using an UPSIT cutoff score of <22 (the 15th percentile) the sensitivity for detecting PD was 9/10 (90%) and ILBD 6/13 (46%), while the specificity was 86% (Controls with score of <22 = 10/69). Conclusions: These results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that olfactory testing could be useful as a screening tool for identifying early, pre-motor PD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Litvan I.,University of Louisville | Litvan I.,Frazier Rehab Neuroscience Institute | Aarsland D.,University of Stavanger | Adler C.H.,Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Center | And 7 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2011

There is controversy regarding the definition and characteristics of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. The Movement Disorder Society commissioned a Task Force to critically evaluate the literature and determine the frequency and characteristics of Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment and its association with dementia. A comprehensive PubMed literature review was conducted using systematic inclusion and exclusion criteria. A mean of 26.7% (range, 18.9%-38.2%) of nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease have mild cognitive impairment. The frequency of Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment increases with age, disease duration, and disease severity. Impairments occur in a range of cognitive domains, but single domain impairment is more common than multiple domain impairment, and within single domain impairment, nonamnestic is more common than amnestic impairment. A high proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment progress to dementia in a relatively short period of time. The primary conclusions of the Task Force are that: (1) Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment is common, (2) there is significant heterogeneity within Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment in the number and types of cognitive domain impairments, (3) Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment appears to place patients at risk of progressing to dementia, and (4) formal diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease-mild cognitive impairment are needed. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

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