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Nema N.K.,Jadavpur University | Maity N.,Jadavpur University | Sarkar B.K.,Parker Robinson P Ltd. | Mukherjee P.K.,Jadavpur University
Pharmaceutical Biology

Context: Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a valuable herb described in Ayurveda, is used in the indigenous system of medicine as a tonic to treat skin diseases. Objective: Centella asiatica methanol extract and its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction, were subjected for the evaluation of skin care potential through the in vitro hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory assay. Materials and methods: The C. asiatica plant was extracted with methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The enzymatic activities were evaluated using ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as standards. Isolate molecule asiaticoside was quantified in the crude extract and fractions through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and structural was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Isolated compound was also evaluated for in vitro enzyme assays. Results: Extract exhibited anti-hyaluronidase and anti-elastase activity with IC 50 of 19.27 ± 0.37 and 14.54 ± 0.39 μg/mL, respectively, as compared to ursolic acid. Centella asiatica n-butanol fraction (CAnB) and isolated compound showed significant hyaluronidase (IC50 = 27.00 ± 0.43 and 18.63 ± 0.33 μg/mL) and elastase (IC 50 = 29.15 ± 0.31 and 19.45 ± 0.25 μg/mL) inhibitory activities, respectively, and also showed significant MMP-1 inhibition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). Discussion and conclusion: n-Butanol fraction was found to be most effective among the all fractions from which asiaticoside was isolated and further quantified by HPLC. This work concludes that the asiaticoside from C. asiatica may be a prospective agent for skin care. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Nema N.K.,Jadavpur University | Maity N.,Jadavpur University | Sarkar B.K.,Parker Robinson P Ltd. | Mukherjee P.K.,Jadavpur University
Toxicology and Industrial Health

Traditionally, the herbal drugs are well established for their therapeutic benefits. Depending upon their geographical sources sometimes the trace and heavy metals' content may differ, which may lead to severe toxicity. So, the toxicological and safety assessment of these herbal drugs are one of the major issues in recent days. Eight different plant species including Aloe vera, Centella asiatica, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus,Camellia sinensis, Clitoria ternatea, Piper betel and Tagetes erecta were selected to determine their heavy and trace metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant materials were collected from the local cultivated regions of West Bengal, India, and were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 303) and the concentration of different trace and heavy metals in the plant samples were calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Other trace metals were found to be present in significant amount. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant materials collected from the specific region are safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contain trace metals such as copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) as well as heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), which were present within the permissible limit. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Maity N.,Jadavpur University | Nema N.K.,Jadavpur University | Sellamuthu M.K.,Jadavpur University | Sarkar B.K.,Parker Robinson P Ltd. | Mukherjee P.K.,Jadavpur University
Natural Product Research

A RP-HPLC method was developed ( max=280) to quantify hydroxychavicol and chlorogenic acid in Piper betel Linn. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection (LOD=3:1/S), limit of quantification (LOQ=10:1/S), precision, accuracy and ruggedness. The response was linear with good correlation between concentration and mean peak area through a coefficient of determinants (r 2) of 0.9940, y=1.98e+004x+5.19e+004 and 0.9945, y=2.76e+004x+1. 40e+005 with LOD 1.6gmL1, 1.0gmL1 and LOQ 5.0gmL 1 and 3.0gmL1, respectively, for hydroxychavicol (28.56% w/w) and chlorogenic acid (0.40% w/w). The %RSD of precision and recovery of hydroxychavicol and chlorogenic acid were <2.0%. The proposed method was simple, accurate, specific, precise and reproducible. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Mukherjee P.K.,Jadavpur University | Maity N.,Jadavpur University | Nema N.K.,Jadavpur University | Sarkar B.K.,Parker Robinson P Ltd.
Studies in Natural Products Chemistry

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) are a family of zinc and calcium dependent endopeptidases. All MMPs have two molecular appearances, one is pre-peptide sequence that directs their secretion in the extracellular environment and another is pro-peptide domain that maintains them in their zymogenic form. MMPs play crucial roles in numerous pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases, skin aging, inflammation, etc. Modulating MMP activities at transcription levels, proteolytic activation of the zymogen form, and inhibition of the active enzyme may however be useful therapeutic approaches. Although several synthetic MMP inhibitors have been identified as cytostatic, antiangiogenic, antiaging, and antiwrinkle agents and also subjected to preclinical trials, but there are consistent number of disappointments and adverse reactions. Currently, researchers are paying great deal of attention on identifying new molecular entities from nutraceuticals which includes genistein, myricetin, curcumin, xanthorhizzol, theaflavin, resveratrol, matlystatin B, nicotinamide, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, catechin derivatives, etc. to target specific MMPs. Importance of these phytomolecules remains largely underexploited, despite increasing evidences showing their ability to act synergistically to control MMPs. This chapter highlights the recent information and investigations on natural MMP inhibitors as novel therapeutic intervention. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Nema N.K.,Jadavpur University | Maity N.,Jadavpur University | Sarkar B.,Parker Robinson P Ltd. | Mukherjee P.K.,Jadavpur University
Archives of Dermatological Research

The aim of this study was to screen the antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-elastase activity of the lyophilized juice of Cucumis sativus fruit (CSLJ). The CSLJ was subjected to DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assay in reference to butylated hydroxytoluene. The hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory assay was performed in reference to oleanolic acid. Furthermore, the activities have been rationalized with HPLC analysis of the CSLJ with standard reference compound of ascorbic acid. The CSLJ exhibited DPPH-free radical and superoxide radical scavenging activity, IC50 at a concentration of 14.73 ± 1.42 and 35.29 ± 1.30 μg/mL, respectively. The CSLJ also showed strong anti-hyaluronidase (c P < 0.001) and anti-elastase (c P < 0.001) activity, IC50 at a concentration of 20.98 ± 1.78 and 6.14 ± 1.74 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC 'chromatogram' of standard and CSLJ showed specific peak at retention time 2.905 and 3.066 min, respectively. Content of ascorbic acid was calculated with respect to the standard compound and it was found to be 3.5 ± 0.23% w/w. CSLJ is the rich source of ascorbic acid and this study thereby rationalizes the use of C. sativus as potential anti-wrinkle agent in cosmetic products. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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