Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience

Atlanta, GA, United States

Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience

Atlanta, GA, United States

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Yun B.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Aidun C.K.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Aidun C.K.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Yoganathan A.P.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Yoganathan A.P.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are among the most popular prostheses to replace defective native valves. However, complex flow phenomena caused by the prosthesis are thought to induce serious thromboembolic complications. This study aims at employing a novel multiscale numerical method that models realistic sized suspended platelets for assessing blood damage potential in flow through BMHVs. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow through a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent™ valve in the aortic position at very high spatiotemporal resolution with the presence of thousands of suspended platelets. Platelet damage is modeled for both the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. No platelets exceed activation thresholds for any of the simulations. Platelet damage is determined to be particularly high for suspended elements trapped in recirculation zones, which suggests a shift of focus in blood damage studies away from instantaneous flow fields and toward high flow mixing regions. In the diastolic phase, leakage flow through the b-datum gap is shown to cause highest damage to platelets. This multiscale numerical method may be used as a generic solver for evaluating blood damage in other cardiovascular flows and devices. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.


Park J.T.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Gomez Ramos L.M.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Bommarius A.S.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience
ChemBioChem | Year: 2015

Nitroreductases (NRs) and ene-reductases (ERs) both utilize flavin mononucleotide cofactors but catalyze distinct reactions. NRs reduce nitroaromatics, whereas ERs reduce unsaturated C=C double bonds, and these functionalities are known to somewhat overlap. Recent studies on the ER xenobiotic reductase A (XenA) from Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the possibility of increasing NR activity with active site modifications. Structural comparison between NRs and ERs led us to hypothesize that active site cavity size plays an important role in determining enzyme functionality. Residues of ER KYE1 from Kluyveromyces lactis were selected to increase the binding pocket size, compensate for hydrogen bonding pattern changes, and eliminate ER activity. Single variants were screened, and promising mutations were combined. Variant F296A/Y275A showed a 100-fold improvement in NR specific activity over wild-type, and variant H191A/F296A/Y375A exhibited complete conversion to a NR. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Reed A.L.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Reed A.L.,Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience | Rowson S.A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Dixon J.B.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: The lymphatic system plays crucial roles in tissue fluid balance, trafficking of immune cells, and the uptake of dietary lipid from the intestine. Given these roles there has been an interest in targeting lymphatics through oral lipid-based formulations or intradermal delivery of drug carrier systems. However the mechanisms regulating lipid uptake by lymphatics remain unknown. Thus we sought to modify a previously developed in vitro model to investigate the role of ATP in lipid uptake into the lymphatics. Methods: Lymphatic endothelial cells were cultured on a transwell membrane and the effective permeability to free fatty acid and Caco-2 cell-secreted lipid was calculated in the presence or absence of the ATP inhibitor sodium azide. Results: ATP inhibition reduced Caco-2 cell-secreted lipid transport, but not dextran transport. FFA transport was ATP-dependent primarily during early periods of ATP inhibition, while Caco-2 cell-secreted lipid transport was lowered at all time points studied. Furthermore, the transcellular component of transport was highly ATP-dependent, a mechanism not observed in fibroblasts, suggesting these mechanisms are unique to lymphatics. Total transport of Caco-2 cell-secreted lipid was dose-dependently reduced by ATP inhibition, and transcellular lipoprotein transport was completely attenuated. Conclusion: The transport of lipid across the lymphatic endothelium as demonstrated with this in vitro model occurs in part by an ATP-dependent, transcellular route independent of passive permeability. It remains to be determined the extent that this mechanism exists in vivo and future work should be directed in this area. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Park J.T.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Gomez Ramos L.M.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Bommarius A.S.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience
ChemBioChem | Year: 2015

Nitroreductases (NRs) and ene-reductases (ERs) both utilize flavin mononucleotide cofactors but catalyze distinct reactions. NRs reduce nitroaromatics, whereas ERs reduce unsaturated CC double bonds, and these functionalities are known to somewhat overlap. Recent studies on the ER xenobiotic reductase A (XenA) from Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the possibility of increasing NR activity with active site modifications. Structural comparison between NRs and ERs led us to hypothesize that active site cavity size plays an important role in determining enzyme functionality. Residues of ER KYE1 from Kluyveromyces lactis were selected to increase the binding pocket size, compensate for hydrogen bonding pattern changes, and eliminate ER activity. Single variants were screened, and promising mutations were combined. Variant F296A/Y275A showed a 100-fold improvement in NR specific activity over wild-type, and variant H191A/F296A/Y375A exhibited complete conversion to a NR. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Gray W.D.,Emory University | Gray W.D.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Che P.,Emory University | Che P.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research | Year: 2011

An estimated 985,000 new myocardial infarctions will occur in the USA in 2011. While many will survive the initial insult, the early damage will eventually lead to heart failure for which the only definitive cure is transplantation. Cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis is a large contributor to cardiac dysfunction, and although potential therapeutic molecules exist to inhibit apoptotic pathways, drug delivery methods are lacking. This damage is largely regional and thus localized delivery of therapeutics holds great potential; however, CMs are relatively nonphagocytic, which limits existing options that rely on phagocytosis. Recently, the sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) was shown to be bound and internalized by CMs, providing a potential mechanism for drug delivery. Here we demonstrate efficacy of a drug delivery system comprising a drug-loaded biodegradable polyketal nanoparticle that is surface-decorated with GlcNAc. Inclusion of the sugar enhanced uptake by CMs as measured by intracellular activated fluorescence. When delivered in vivo following ischemia-reperfusion injury, GlcNAc-decorated particles loaded with the p38 inhibitor SB239063 reduced apoptotic events and infarct size and improved acute cardiac function. This was in contrast to our published data demonstrating no acute effect of non-sugar-decorated, p38 inhibitor-loaded particles. These data suggest a novel therapeutic option to enhance uptake of drug-loaded nanoparticles to CMs and perhaps reduce the large amount of CM cell death following myocardial injury. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Rivet C.A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Kniss-James A.S.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Gran M.A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Potnis A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

T cells reach a state of replicative senescence characterized by a decreased ability to proliferate and respond to foreign antigens. Calcium release associated with TCR engagement is widely used as a surrogate measure of T cell response. Using an ex vivo culture model that partially replicates features of organismal aging, we observe that while the amplitude of Ca2+ signaling does not change with time in culture, older T cells exhibit faster Ca2+ rise and a faster decay. Gene expression analysis of Ca2+ channels and pumps expressed in T cells by RT-qPCR identified overexpression of the plasma membrane CRAC channel subunit ORAI1 and PMCA in older T cells. To test whether overexpression of the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel is sufficient to explain the kinetic information, we adapted a previously published computational model by Maurya and Subramaniam to include additional details on the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) process to recapitulate Ca2+ dynamics after T cell receptor stimulation. Simulations demonstrated that upregulation of ORAI1 and PMCA channels is not sufficient to explain the observed alterations in Ca2+ signaling. Instead, modeling analysis identified kinetic parameters associated with the IP3R and STIM1 channels as potential causes for alterations in Ca2+ dynamics associated with the long term ex vivo culturing protocol. Due to these proteins having known cysteine residues susceptible to oxidation, we subsequently investigated and observed transcriptional remodeling of metabolic enzymes, a shift to more oxidized redox couples, and post-translational thiol oxidation of STIM1. The model-directed findings from this study highlight changes in the cellular redox environment that may ultimately lead to altered T cell calcium dynamics during immunosenescence or organismal aging. © 2016 Rivet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Sy J.C.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Sy J.C.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Phelps E.A.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Phelps E.A.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Microparticle drug delivery systems have been used for over 20 years to deliver a variety of drugs and therapeutics. However, effective microencapsulation of proteins has been limited by low encapsulation efficiencies, large required amounts of protein, and risk of protein denaturation. In this work, we have adapted a widely used immobilized metal affinity protein purification strategy to non-covalently attach proteins to the surface of microparticles. Polyketal microparticles were surface modified with nitrilotriacetic acid-nickel complexes which have a high affinity for sequential histidine tags on proteins. We demonstrate that this high affinity interaction can efficiently capture proteins from dilute solutions with little risk of protein denaturation. Proteins that bound to the Ni-NTA complex retain activity and can diffuse away from the microparticles to activate cells from a distance. In addition, this surface modification can also be used for microparticle targeting by tethering cell-specific ligands to the surface of the particles, using VE-Cadherin and endothelial cells as a model. In summary, we show that immobilized metal affinity strategies have the potential to improve targeting and protein delivery via degradable polymer microparticles. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Boopathy A.V.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Boopathy A.V.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | Pendergrass K.D.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Pendergrass K.D.,Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience | And 7 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction. Administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after myocardial infarction (MI) results in modest functional improvements. However; the effect of microenvironment changes after MI, such as elevated levels of oxidative stress on cardiogenic gene expression of MSCs, remains unclear. Methods. MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of adult rats and treated for 1 week with H2O2 (0.1 to 100 μM) or 48 hours with glucose oxidase (GOX; 0 to 5 mU/ml) to mimic long-term pulsed or short-term continuous levels of H2O2, respectively. Results: In 100 μM H2O2 or 5 mU/ml GOX-treated MSCs, mRNA expression of selected endothelial genes (Flt1, vWF, PECAM1), and early cardiac marker (nkx2-5, αMHC) increased significantly, whereas early smooth muscle markers (smooth muscle α-actin and sm22α) and fibroblast marker vimentin decreased, as measured with real-time PCR. Interestingly, mRNA expression and activity of the cell-surface receptor Notch1 were significantly increased, as were its downstream targets, Hes5 and Hey1. Co-treatment of MSCs with 100 μM H2O2 and a γ-secretase inhibitor that prevents Notch signaling abrogated the increase in cardiac and endothelial genes, while augmenting the decrease in smooth muscle markers. Further, on GOX treatment, a significant increase in Wnt11, a downstream target of Notch1, was observed. Similar results were obtained with adult rat cardiac-derived progenitor cells. Conclusions: These data suggest that H2O2- or GOX-mediated oxidative stress upregulates Notch1 signaling, which promotes cardiogenic gene expression in adult stem/progenitor cells, possibly involving Wnt11. Modulating the balance between Notch activation and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress may lead to improved adult stem cell-based therapies for cardiac repair and regeneration. © 2013 Boopathy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Parker H Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience
Type: | Journal: Nanotechnology, science and applications | Year: 2013

Because of their photo-optical distinctiveness and biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have proven to be powerful tools in various nanomedicinal and nanomedical applications. In this review article, we discuss recent advances in the application of AuNPs in diagnostic imaging, biosensing and binary cancer therapeutic techniques. We also provide an eclectic collection of AuNPs delivery strategies, including assorted classes of delivery vehicles, which are showing great promise in specific targeting of AuNPs to diseased tissues. However, successful clinical implementations of the promised applications of AuNPs are still hampered by many barriers. In particular, more still needs to be done regarding our understanding of the pharmacokinetics and toxicological profiles of AuNPs and AuNPs-conjugates.


PubMed | Parker H Petit Institute For Bioengineering And Bioscience
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology | Year: 2015

Nitroreductases (NRs) and ene-reductases (ERs) both utilize flavin mononucleotide cofactors but catalyze distinct reactions. NRs reduce nitroaromatics, whereas ERs reduce unsaturated C=C double bonds, and these functionalities are known to somewhat overlap. Recent studies on the ER xenobiotic reductase A (XenA) from Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the possibility of increasing NR activity with active site modifications. Structural comparison between NRs and ERs led us to hypothesize that active site cavity size plays an important role in determining enzyme functionality. Residues of ER KYE1 from Kluyveromyces lactis were selected to increase the binding pocket size, compensate for hydrogen bonding pattern changes, and eliminate ER activity. Single variants were screened, and promising mutations were combined. Variant F296A/Y275A showed a 100-fold improvement in NR specific activity over wild-type, and variant H191A/F296A/Y375A exhibited complete conversion to a NR.

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