Chacko E.C.,Singapore General Hospital |
Surrun S.K.,Singapore General Hospital |
Mubarack Sani T.P.,Pariyaram Medical College |
Pappachan J.M.,Singapore General Hospital
Postgraduate Medical Journal | Year: 2010
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem worldwide over the past few decades because of the increasing prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and elderly individuals in most countries. Chronic viral hepatitis (due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)) also poses significant morbidity and mortality globally. Both these viruses can cause CKD and these infections can occur as a consequence of CKD management. CKD patients acquiring HBV or HCV infection have higher morbidity and mortality rates, and the management of these infections among CKD patients with antiviral agents is associated with high rates of adverse effects. The optimal management of CKD associated with HBV and HCV is not well defined because of insufficient data from clinical trials. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics and management issues related to chronic viral hepatitis and CKD.
Indiran V.,Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital |
Valiyakath S.,Pariyaram Medical College |
Maduraimuthu P.,Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015
A large spectrum of pathologic entities including benign and malignant lesions is found in the thyroid gland. Lesions of thyroid gland represent some of the most heterogeneous abnormalities in the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to detect thyroid lesions and to differentiate between benign and malignant pathology, based on their sonographic appearance. We evaluated 90 patients with thyroid swelling using high resolution sonography and color Doppler and followed up with HPE. The present study had a sensitivity of 66.6%, specificity of 96.7% and diagnostic accuracy of 91%. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in various other studies range from 60-75% and 59-91% respectively. Such wide variation in predictive values is usually attributed to the fact of ultrasonography being highly operator dependent. High resolution sonography performed by a skilled radiologist is very sensitive and is recommended as the primary imaging modality in evaluation of thyroid diseases. It has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Sonography examination can be regarded as an excellent investigation for differentiating solid, cystic and mixed lesions; for locating clinically non palpable nodules and for follow up of benign thyroid nodules.
Vivekanand U.,Kasturba Medical College |
Shetty A.,Kasturba Medical College |
Kulkarni C.,Pariyaram Medical College
Tropical Doctor | Year: 2011
We report the final outcomes, based on final visual acuity, of patients who underwent cataract surgery at an outreach rural ophthalmology unit and document the details of the ophthalmic examination, type of surgery, intra- and postoperative complications and the final visual acuity. Of 208 eyes (198 patients), 81.3% had small incision cataract surgery and 18.7% had phacoemulsification. We believe that, with good planning and the proper utilization of available resources, it is possible to achieve a good visual outcome in the great majority of cases.
Yaranal P.J.,Kannur Medical College |
Harish S.G.,Basaveshwar Medical College |
Purushotham B.,Pariyaram Medical College
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014
Introduction: Primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL) is defined as an extranodal lymphoma arising in the intestine. This study includes 11 PILs. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL) in the small and large intestine. All cases were reclassified according to the World Health Organization classification of lymphoma in 2001. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to confirm the histopathological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Eleven cases of primary non-Hodgkin in the small and large intestine were studied retrospectively in a 5 year period. There were seven cases of resected intestinal specimens and four biopsy specimens. Five cases from ileum and two cases each from caecum and duodenum and one case each from jejunum and duodenum. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied with light microscopy and IHC for CD5, 20, 21 and cyclin D1 were done. Results: It is a retrospective study of 11 cases of intestinal lymphomas. Abdominal pain and abdominal lump were two main common presenting symptoms. NHLs were more common in the small intestine. PILs are common in adults (75% above 46 years) with male preponderance. All were NHLs and B-cell type. Five cases were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and four cases each were mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. One case was lymphomatoid polyposis or mantle cell lymphoma. Conclusion: PILs is rare and differs significantly from their gastric counterpart, not only in pathology but also with regard to clinical features, management and prognosis. Due to the lack of characteristic symptoms and a low incidence rate, PIL is misdiagnosed until serious complications occur, such as perforation and bleeding and hence needs to be accurately diagnosed.
Thyvalappil A.,P.A. College |
Sudhamani B.,P.A. College |
Kizhakkethara G.,Pariyaram Medical College |
Sridharan R.,P.A. College |
Kunjan R.,P.A. College
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015
Paraganglioma-like dermal melanocytic tumor (PDMT) is a rare subtype of benign dermal melanocytic tumor, first described in 2004. Its histopathologic features resemble those of paraganglioma, showing presence of a distinctive partitioning of the tumor into small and large packets, nests, or short cords by delicate fibrous septa (zellballen pattern). But the immunostaining characteristics are those of melanocytic lesions, as PDMT express S-100, melan A, HMB 45 and lack pancytokeratin markers. It has a benign course, although a lesion of low malignant potential cannot be excluded. We describe a case of 60-year-old female who presented with three PDMT lesions on her right leg. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case reported from India. © 2015 Indian Journal of Dermatology.