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Paris West University Nanterre La Défense formerly called "Paris X Nanterre" is a French university in the Academy of Versailles. It is one of the most prestigious French universities, mainly in the areas of law, humanities, political science, social science, and economics. It is one of the 13 successor universities of the University of Paris. It is located in the western suburb of Nanterre, in the La Défense area, the business district of Paris. The university is commonly referred to as Nanterre. Wikipedia.


Marchetti M.C.,Syracuse Biomaterials Institute | Joanny J.F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Ramaswamy S.,Indian Institute of Science | Liverpool T.B.,University of Bristol | And 5 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2013

This review summarizes theoretical progress in the field of active matter, placing it in the context of recent experiments. This approach offers a unified framework for the mechanical and statistical properties of living matter: biofilaments and molecular motors in vitro or in vivo, collections of motile microorganisms, animal flocks, and chemical or mechanical imitations. A major goal of this review is to integrate several approaches proposed in the literature, from semimicroscopic to phenomenological. In particular, first considered are "dry" systems, defined as those where momentum is not conserved due to friction with a substrate or an embedding porous medium. The differences and similarities between two types of orientationally ordered states, the nematic and the polar, are clarified. Next, the active hydrodynamics of suspensions or "wet" systems is discussed and the relation with and difference from the dry case, as well as various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter, are highlighted. Further highlighted are various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter. Various semimicroscopic derivations of the continuum theory are discussed and connected, highlighting the unifying and generic nature of the continuum model. Throughout the review, the experimental relevance of these theories for describing bacterial swarms and suspensions, the cytoskeleton of living cells, and vibrated granular material is discussed. Promising extensions toward greater realism in specific contexts from cell biology to animal behavior are suggested, and remarks are given on some exotic active-matter analogs. Last, the outlook for a quantitative understanding of active matter, through the interplay of detailed theory with controlled experiments on simplified systems, with living or artificial constituents, is summarized. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Bathias C.,Paris West University Nanterre La Defense
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2010

In this paper several cases of metallurgical instability at high frequency are shown in order to explain what is the limitation of ultrasonic fatigue compared to regular frequency fatigue, for engineering applications. The response of the micro structure around a flaw, that is to say a stress concentration, after a great number of cycles applied in the case of ultrasonic fatigue with a high strain rate is taken into account in gigacycle fatigue initiation. The instability of the microstructure is often related to a heating dissipation with an increase of the temperature. The increase of temperature associated with a microstructural transformation seems to explain a frequency effect which does not exist for many stable metals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Neronov A.,University of Geneva | Semikoz D.,Paris West University Nanterre La Defense
Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2016

We show that the Galactic latitude distribution of IceCube astrophysical neutrino events with energies above 100 TeV is inconsistent with the isotropic model of the astrophysical neutrino flux. Namely, the Galactic latitude distribution of the events shows an excess at low latitudes |b| < 10° and a deficit at high Galactic latitude |b| ≳50°. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to show that the inconsistency of the isotropic signal model with the data is at ≳3σ level, after the account of trial factors related to the choice of the low-energy threshold and Galactic latitude binning in our analysis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Nicolis A.,Columbia University | Piazza F.,Paris West University Nanterre La Defense
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We adapt the Goldstone theorem to study spontaneous symmetry breaking in relativistic theories at finite charge density. It is customary to treat systems at finite density via nonrelativistic Hamiltonians. Here, we highlight the importance of the underlying relativistic dynamics. This leads to seemingly new results whenever the charge in question is spontaneously broken and does not commute with other broken charges. We find that that the latter interpolate gapped excitations. In contrast, all existing versions of the Goldstone theorem predict the existence of gapless modes. We derive exact nonperturbative expressions for their gaps, in terms of the chemical potential and of the symmetry algebra. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Rea D.,Paris West University Nanterre La Defense
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2015

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson 1 (BCR-ABL1) oncoprotein represent an outstanding progress in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and long-term survival has become a reality. However, the majority of patients need to be treated during their entire life span; thus, outcome does not solely depend on treatment efficacy but also on how well therapy is tolerated. TKIs have an overall favorable safety profile in clinical practice. Although many patients may encounter adverse events, these usually occur early after treatment initiation, are mild to moderate in intensity and resolve spontaneously, or are easily controlled with adequate supportive care. Whenever treatment interruption is necessary, re-exposition to the same TKI or switch to an alternative TKI is successful in the majority of the cases. However, long-term safety issues have not been fully elucidated at present, especially for new-generation TKIs. Recent evidence has emerged that these new agents may sometimes impinge on vital organs such as the heart and lung in an irreversible fashion especially when comorbidities are present; thus, decision regarding of which TKI should be used must take into account disease-related, TKI-related, and patient-related variables. The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of common adverse events associated with TKIs and how these events may be optimally managed. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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