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Paris, France

Paris-Sorbonne University , is a public research university in Paris, France. It was established in 1970 after the division of the University of Paris, the world's second oldest academic institution founded in the 12th century, following the cultural revolution of French May 1968. Paris-Sorbonne University is one of the inheritors of the former Humanities and Languages faculties of the University of Paris.The university is ranked 227 in the world by the 2014 QS World University Rankings. According to the QS Ranking, Paris-Sorbonne University is positioned as the second university for Arts and Humanities in France. The international approach and the quality of its teachers is recognized worldwide, with the university having the overall highest reputation of all academic institutions in France, according to The Times Higher Education.The university enrolls about 24,000 students composed of 20 departments specializing in arts, humanities and languages, divided in 12 campuses in Paris. Seven of the campuses are situated in the historic Latin Quarter, including the historic Sorbonne university building, and three in Marais, Malesherbes and Clignancourt respectively. Paris-Sorbonne also houses France's prestigious communication and journalism school, CELSA, located in the Parisian suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine, maintains about 400 international agreements, and is a founding member of Sorbonne Universities. Wikipedia.


Levin L.A.,University of California at San Diego | Bris N.L.,Paris-Sorbonne University
Science | Year: 2015

The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.


Klatzmann D.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Klatzmann D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Klatzmann D.,Biotherapy and Departement Hospitalo University Inflammation Immunopathology Biotherapy | Abbas A.K.,University of California at San Francisco
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2015

Depletion of regulatory T (T Reg) cells in otherwise healthy individuals leads to multi-organ autoimmune disease and inflammation. This indicates that in a normal immune system, there are self-specific effector T cells that are ready to attack normal tissue if they are not restrained by T Reg cells. The data imply that there is a balance between effector T cells and T Reg cells in health and suggest a therapeutic potential of T Reg cells in diseases in which this balance is altered. Proof-of-concept clinical trials, now supported by robust mechanistic studies, have shown that low-dose interleukin-2 specifically expands and activates T Reg cell populations and thus can control autoimmune diseases and inflammation.


Hleyhel M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hleyhel M.,Paris-Sorbonne University
AIDS | Year: 2014

Objectives: Improved survival among HIV-infected individuals after the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) had drawn attention on non-AIDS-defining cancers. We evaluated the incidence and risk trends of lung cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver and anal cancers, focusing on patients with CD4+ cell recovery and age at diagnosis, by comparison with the general population. Design: Cohort study. Methods: Standardized incidence rates were calculated in the HIV-infected individuals followed in the FHDH and the general population in France in 1997-2000, 2001- 2004, and 2005-2009. We estimated standardized incidence ratios for each period and for patients with CD4+ cell count at least 500 cells/μl for at least 2 years on cART. Results: Among the 84 504 HIV-infected individuals, the risk of lung and anal cancers fell during the cART era, whereas that of Hodgkin's lymphoma and liver cancer remained stable. In 2005-2009, the standardized incidence ratios for lung cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver and anal cancers were, respectively, 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-3.1], 26.5 (95% CI 23.2-30.1), 10.9 (95% CI 9.6-12.3) and 79.3 (95% CI 69.5-90.1). Among patients with CD4+ cell recovery on cART, the risk was close to that of the general population for lung cancer, nine-fold higher for Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 2.4-fold higher for liver cancer. Age at diagnosis was significantly younger among HIV-infected individuals for lung cancer (-3.3 years), Hodgkin's lymphoma (-1 year) and liver cancer (-10.1 years). Conclusion: HIV-infected patients were at a higher risk for the four cancers over 1997- 2009. CD4+ cell recovery appears to control the excess risk of lung cancer. For liver cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma, our results suggest that CD4+ should never drop below 500/μl 500 cells/μl to avoid the excess risk. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.


Dos Santos F.P.,Paris-Sorbonne University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

We present here a method for the extraction of the differential phase of an atom gradiometer that exploits the correlation of the vibration signal measured by an auxiliary classical sensor, such as a seismometer or an accelerometer. We show that sensitivities close to the quantum projection noise limit can be reached, even when the vibration noise induces phase fluctuations larger than 2π. This method does not require the correlation between the atomic and classical signals to be perfect and allows for an exact determination of the differential phase, with no bias. It can also be applied to other configurations of differential interferometers, such as gyrometers, conjugate interferometers for the measurement of the fine-structure constant, or differential accelerometers for tests of the equivalence principle or detection of gravitational waves. © 2015 American Physical Society. ©2015 American Physical Society.


Bernard S.,Paris-Sorbonne University
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2011

This paper presents a theoretical model of remanufacturing where a duopoly of original manufacturers produces a component of a final good. The specific component that needs to be replaced during the lifetime of the final good creates a secondary market where independent remanufacturers enter the competition. An environmental regulation imposing a minimum level of remanufacturability is also introduced. The main results establish that, while collusion of the firms on the level of remanufacturability increases both profit and consumer surplus, a social planner could use collusion as a substitute for an environmental regulation. However, if an environmental regulation is to be implemented, collusion should be repressed since competition supports the public intervention better. Under certain circumstances, the environmental regulation can increase both profit and consumer surplus. Part of this result supports the Porter Hypothesis, which stipulates that industries respecting environmental regulations can see their profits increase. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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