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Valdez R.S.,University of Virginia | Guterbock T.M.,University of Virginia | Thompson M.J.,University of Virginia | Reilly J.D.,University of Virginia | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2014

Background: Obtaining access to a demographically and geographically diverse sample for health-related research can be costly and time consuming. Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the potential of using social media-based advertisements to overcome these challenges. Objective: Our aim was to develop and assess the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of recruiting for research studies related to consumer health information technology (IT) by leveraging the social structures embedded in the social networking platform, Facebook. Methods: Two recruitment strategies that involved direct communication with existing Facebook groups and pages were developed and implemented in two distinct populations. The first recruitment strategy involved posting a survey link directly to consenting groups and pages and was used to recruit Filipino-Americans to a study assessing the perceptions, use of, and preferences for consumer health IT. This study took place between August and December 2013. The second recruitment strategy targeted individuals with type 2 diabetes and involved creating a study-related Facebook group and asking administrators of other groups and pages to publicize our group to their members. Group members were then directly invited to participate in an online pre-study survey. This portion of a larger study to understand existing health management practices as a foundation for consumer health IT design took place between May and June 2014. In executing both recruitment strategies, efforts were made to establish trust and transparency. Recruitment rate, cost, content of interaction, and characteristics of the sample obtained were used to assess the recruitment methods. Results: The two recruitment methods yielded 87 and 79 complete responses, respectively. The first recruitment method yielded a rate of study completion proportionate to that of the rate of posts made, whereas recruitment successes of the second recruitment method seemed to follow directly from the actions of a subset of administrators. Excluding personnel time, the first recruitment method resulted in no direct costs, and the second recruitment method resulted in a total direct cost of US $118.17. Messages, posts, and comments received using both recruitment strategies reflected ten themes, including appreciation, assistance, clarification, concerns, encouragement, health information, interest, promotion, solicitations, and support. Both recruitment methods produced mixed results regarding sample representativeness with respect to characteristics such as gender, race, and ethnicity. Conclusions: The results of the study demonstrate that leveraging the social structures of Facebook for health-related research was feasible for obtaining small samples appropriate for qualitative research but not for obtaining large samples needed for quantitative research. The content of interactions with members of the target population prompted ethical deliberations concerning suitable target communities and appropriate boundaries between researchers and participants. Widespread replication of this method would benefit from a broad discussion among researchers, social media users, social media companies, and experts in research ethics to address appropriate protocols for such interactions. ©Rupa S Valdez, Thomas M Guterbock, Morgan J Thompson, Jeremiah D Reilly, Hannah K Menefee, Maria S Bennici, Ishan C Williams, Deborah L Rexrode.

Breteau V.,ParisTech National School of Bridges and Roads | Weber S.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Fuel may be taxed to cover the environmental costs associated with fuel consumption by road vehicles. Fuel taxation represents a large source of government revenue, especially in Europe and particularly in France. Furthermore, different levels of fuel taxation often have been used as a way to support an industrial sector. In France, the main fuel tax is lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. From an environmental viewpoint, several studies show that gasoline is overtaxed and diesel fuel is undertaxed. But from the users' viewpoint, diesel-powered cars are appealing: they are more fuel-efficient, and their fuel is cheaper (at least in France and several other European countries). However, diesel cars are more expensive to purchase, partly because automakers capture part of the expected gains. A change in the fuel taxation levels thus is expected to affect how households and businesses choose engine types, and in response, automakers would change their pricing strategies. The expected outcome is undetermined. Insights into this question are given by using French data to model the demand and the supply sides of the car market. Expected long-term outcomes of different taxation schemes are given at the car fleet level for France. A 60% increase in the diesel fuel tax would bring about a decrease in the dieselization rate at the fleet level from 64% to 45% between 2011 and 2030 and a decrease in overall carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of passenger cars by 3.5%, whereas a scheme including a decreased gasoline tax could bring about an increase in CO2 emissions.

Ferrando O.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Central Asian Survey | Year: 2011

This article explores a key event in the recent history of Central Asia: the 1950s Soviet policy of forced transfers of highlanders down to cotton kolkhozes in the Ferghana Valley. From both a historical and sociological perspective, the article analyses how the displaced population was received in the areas of destination. It sheds light on the concept of ethnicity, in the sense that these transfers were most often analysed in ethnic terms. This approach does not allow for the perception of a complex range of identities based on a nation, a region, a lineage, a religion or a language. The concept of ethnicity seems therefore limited to explain the social dynamics of nation-state formation in a region where identity appears to be multiple, changing and constantly renegotiated. © 2011 Central Asian Survey.

Lacour P.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2012

One of the possible intersections between the Web and Philosophy lies in the use of the term 'ontology' by the Web architects. Indeed, the term "ontology" belongs to the classical vocabulary of the branch of philosophy called Metaphysics, which is concerned with the very nature of the world. Considering the Web as a form of (virtual) world, one could very well apply traditional philosophical questions to the stuff of this universe. Is it made of items (datas), processes (actions), or even things? What kind of ontology do we need to describe it? In this paper, we will argue that philosophy should focus less on ontology than on logic (namely, semantics) to tackle the issue, therefore slightly changing the way the problem is set. We shall take the case of Web Translation as an example. In so doing, we will show that a philosophy of the Web is justified to the extent that it somehow plays the role of psychoanalysis of culture, beyond the idea of a Critique (Kant) and of a psychoanalysis of knowledge (Bachelard).

Perard E.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Water Policy | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to examine the institutional organization of the water sector. The Mediterranean area provides very diverse examples of water sector organization. This paper focuses more particularly on two aspects, the recent introduction of private sector participation and the institutional framework. Five countries have been reviewed in detail: Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Jordan. For each of these countries, the paper analyzes institutional arrangements for the water sector. It presents the theoretical legal framework but also the practice. It shows that 'independent' regulatory agencies have been set up in only a few countries. However, a closer look confirms that these regulatory agencies are rarely independent. The study also reveals that in most of the countries, the management of water supply suffers from political interference and is overly centralized. Experience with corporatization has also been limited. While the corporatization of local operators has been legalized in most countries, few have implemented it. Experience with private sector participation in water supply has been relatively positive and is, therefore, expected to expand in the future. © IWA Publishing 2010.

This text suggests a commentary of patient tailored medicine based on the discourse of the practices of physicians partnering with networks of prevention, treatment and screening of pediatric obesity. Constructed around the study of physicians' dialogues, data was collected during two surveys evaluating the networks of Toulouse Midi-Pyrenees and Franche-Comté.

Von Muhlendahl P.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law | Year: 2016

A maritime delimitation is, in its very nature, a delicate process, whose complexity can be further compounded by the presence of tiny land features, as they can considerably distort the final delimitation line. In several recent maritime delimitation cases, the question of the legal status of such a feature has arisen on the one hand, and of the potential effect that its presence in the delimitation area should have on the boundary on the other hand. Among the multiple options that international judges or arbitrators may use, they have chosen, and rightly so, a conservative approach, consisting in attributing a largely secondary role, if any, to these chunks of emerged land. This raises the larger issue about the true nature of a maritime delimitation decided by a judge or an arbitrator and, by extension, the relationship between law and nature. © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2016.

Storper M.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Urban Studies | Year: 2010

Why are there persistent differences in income between metropolitan areas? The answer to this question has evaded much of the scholarship on the topic. Some of the frameworks that drive empirical research in this field are based on ad hoc combinations of explanatory factors, ranging from natural climate, to business climate, to land and labour costs. Theoretical approaches emphasise economic specialisation: some activities have higher rates of growth than others and this translates into divergence in interurban growth and income. Yet specialisation itself needs to be explained. International economics explains different growth rates and income levels among countries by emphasising specialisation, human capital and institutions. This framework can be adapted to the analysis of metropolitan growth. The thorniest aspect of doing so is to consider recursive relationships among the three, as well as decisive events that might introduce irreversible path-dependent outcomes that differentiate cities. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

de Montluc B.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Space Policy | Year: 2012

With the growing need for monitoring and awareness of all the objects in space (including debris) now recognized, the types of effort required towards this end are discussed, with the emphasis on European activities. A number of European documents acknowledging the problem are cited and initiatives to promote space situational awareness (SSA) are examined. While there is currently no provision in the EU budget beyond 2013 for protecting ground and space assets from space environmental threats, an encouraging degree of bilateral cooperation between member states suggests that an SSA capability is emerging in Europe. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Plugaru R.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
World hospitals and health services : the official journal of the International Hospital Federation | Year: 2010

This article explores the development of post-soviet hospital design through the analysis of recent modernisations in Moldova and Ukraine. It consists of two parts. First, an introduction of the definition of hospital design as well as its main characteristics during the Soviet period. Secondly, a presentation of two hospital modernisations in Ukraine and Moldova. In a comparative perspective, the paper presents the actors involved, the difficulties in modernising the hospital regarding the inherited rules as well as the solutions advanced in order to implement a change. An introduction to the hospital design in Moldova and Ukraine will allow an in-depth study of the involvement of international actors in the post-communist transformations.

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