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Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue, France

Ferrando O.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Central Asian Survey | Year: 2011

This article explores a key event in the recent history of Central Asia: the 1950s Soviet policy of forced transfers of highlanders down to cotton kolkhozes in the Ferghana Valley. From both a historical and sociological perspective, the article analyses how the displaced population was received in the areas of destination. It sheds light on the concept of ethnicity, in the sense that these transfers were most often analysed in ethnic terms. This approach does not allow for the perception of a complex range of identities based on a nation, a region, a lineage, a religion or a language. The concept of ethnicity seems therefore limited to explain the social dynamics of nation-state formation in a region where identity appears to be multiple, changing and constantly renegotiated. © 2011 Central Asian Survey.

This text suggests a commentary of patient tailored medicine based on the discourse of the practices of physicians partnering with networks of prevention, treatment and screening of pediatric obesity. Constructed around the study of physicians' dialogues, data was collected during two surveys evaluating the networks of Toulouse Midi-Pyrenees and Franche-Comté.

Lacour P.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2012

One of the possible intersections between the Web and Philosophy lies in the use of the term 'ontology' by the Web architects. Indeed, the term "ontology" belongs to the classical vocabulary of the branch of philosophy called Metaphysics, which is concerned with the very nature of the world. Considering the Web as a form of (virtual) world, one could very well apply traditional philosophical questions to the stuff of this universe. Is it made of items (datas), processes (actions), or even things? What kind of ontology do we need to describe it? In this paper, we will argue that philosophy should focus less on ontology than on logic (namely, semantics) to tackle the issue, therefore slightly changing the way the problem is set. We shall take the case of Web Translation as an example. In so doing, we will show that a philosophy of the Web is justified to the extent that it somehow plays the role of psychoanalysis of culture, beyond the idea of a Critique (Kant) and of a psychoanalysis of knowledge (Bachelard).

Perard E.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Water Policy | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to examine the institutional organization of the water sector. The Mediterranean area provides very diverse examples of water sector organization. This paper focuses more particularly on two aspects, the recent introduction of private sector participation and the institutional framework. Five countries have been reviewed in detail: Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Jordan. For each of these countries, the paper analyzes institutional arrangements for the water sector. It presents the theoretical legal framework but also the practice. It shows that 'independent' regulatory agencies have been set up in only a few countries. However, a closer look confirms that these regulatory agencies are rarely independent. The study also reveals that in most of the countries, the management of water supply suffers from political interference and is overly centralized. Experience with corporatization has also been limited. While the corporatization of local operators has been legalized in most countries, few have implemented it. Experience with private sector participation in water supply has been relatively positive and is, therefore, expected to expand in the future. © IWA Publishing 2010.

Breteau V.,ParisTech National School of Bridges and Roads | Weber S.,Paris Institute of Political Studies
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Fuel may be taxed to cover the environmental costs associated with fuel consumption by road vehicles. Fuel taxation represents a large source of government revenue, especially in Europe and particularly in France. Furthermore, different levels of fuel taxation often have been used as a way to support an industrial sector. In France, the main fuel tax is lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. From an environmental viewpoint, several studies show that gasoline is overtaxed and diesel fuel is undertaxed. But from the users' viewpoint, diesel-powered cars are appealing: they are more fuel-efficient, and their fuel is cheaper (at least in France and several other European countries). However, diesel cars are more expensive to purchase, partly because automakers capture part of the expected gains. A change in the fuel taxation levels thus is expected to affect how households and businesses choose engine types, and in response, automakers would change their pricing strategies. The expected outcome is undetermined. Insights into this question are given by using French data to model the demand and the supply sides of the car market. Expected long-term outcomes of different taxation schemes are given at the car fleet level for France. A 60% increase in the diesel fuel tax would bring about a decrease in the dieselization rate at the fleet level from 64% to 45% between 2011 and 2030 and a decrease in overall carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of passenger cars by 3.5%, whereas a scheme including a decreased gasoline tax could bring about an increase in CO2 emissions.

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