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Reed M.S.,City University London | Moxey A.,Pareto Consulting | Prager K.,James Hutton Institute | Hanley N.,University of Stirling | And 7 more authors.
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2014

This paper considers how agri-environment schemes under the Common Agricultural Policy could be adapted to derive a higher return of ecosystem services, by spatially targeting the services most valued by society and providing incentives for cross-boundary management of certain ecosystem services at catchment or wider spatial scales. The paper reviews evidence that spatially targeted, outcome-based payments may be more economically efficient than current approaches, but identifies a number of challenges, including: scientific uncertainty; pricing of ecosystem services; timing of payments; increased risk to land managers; compliance with World Trade Organisation regulations; and barriers to cross-boundary collaboration in the management of ecosystem services at habitat, catchment or landscape scales. Options are reviewed to overcome these challenges, including: the use of pressure-response functions and modelling approaches to establish causal links between management and ecosystem service delivery and reduce the costs of monitoring; non-market valuation techniques to set prices for ecosystem service delivery; insurance schemes; combining funding from public and private Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes; and options to facilitate cross-boundary management of ecosystem services. Using examples from UK peatlands and the Welsh Glastir agri-environment scheme, the paper suggests ways to link payments for management inputs more effectively to the provision of ecosystem services. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Moran D.,Research Division | Macleod M.,Research Division | Wall E.,Research Division | Eory V.,Research Division | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011

This article addresses the challenge of developing a 'bottom-up' marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from UK agriculture. An MACC illustrates the costs of specific crop, soil and livestock abatement measures against a 'business as usual' scenario. The results indicate that in 2022 under a specific policy scenario, around 5.38Mt CO2 equivalent (e) could be abated at negative or zero cost. A further 17% of agricultural GHG emissions (7.85 Mt CO2e) could be abated at a lower unit cost than the UK Government's 2022 shadow price of carbon [£34 (tCO2e)-1]. The article discusses a range of methodological hurdles that complicate cost-effectiveness appraisal of abatement in agriculture relative to other sectors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Glenk K.,Scotland’s Rural College | Schaafsma M.,University of East Anglia | Moxey A.,Pareto Consulting | Martin-Ortega J.,James Hutton Institute | Hanley N.,University of Stirling
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2014

Recent evidence suggests that the degree of degradation of peatlands is substantial, and that there is a significant potential to enhance the delivery of a wide range of ecosystem services by investing in peatland restoration. However, little is known about the social welfare impacts of peatland restoration and in particular how to spatially target restoration activities to maximise net benefits from investments in restoration. This paper investigates the steps required to conduct a spatially explicit economic impact assessment of peatland restoration, and highlights and discusses key requirements and issues associated with such an assessment. We find that spatially explicit modelling of the biophysical impacts of restoration over time is challenging due to non-linear effects and interaction effects. This has repercussions for the spatially explicit assessment of costs and benefits, which in itself is a demanding task. We conclude that the gains of investing in the research needed to conduct such an assessment can be high, both in terms of advancing science and in terms of providing useful information for decision makers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


MacLeod M.,SAC | Moran D.,SAC | Eory V.,SAC | Rees R.M.,SAC | And 10 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2010

Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture are likely to come under increasing scrutiny as governments around the world develop proposals for large cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. Yet while there is a range of technically feasible measures for reducing agricultural emissions, it is not immediately apparent which options deliver the most economically efficient reductions in greenhouse gases. This paper develops a marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) for crop and soil measures applicable in UK agriculture. A range of specific abatement measures are screened for their cost-effectiveness and mitigation potential in the field. An efficient subset is identified with reference to a cost per tonne threshold of ≤£100/tCO2e. Results indicate that the abatement potential by 2022 is likely to be between 1.628 and 10.164 MtCO2e y-1 depending on the policies implemented, with a central estimate of 5.196 MtCO2e y-1. This represents 11.5% of the 2005 UK agricultural GHG emissions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Moran D.,SAC | MacLeod M.,SAC | Wall E.,SAC | Eory V.,SAC | And 8 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

This paper derives a notional future carbon budget for UK agriculture, land use, land use change and forestry sectors (ALULUCF). The budget is based on a bottom-up marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) derived for a range of mitigation measures for specified adoption scenarios for the years 2012, 2017 and 2022. The results indicate that in 2022 around 6.36 MtCO2e could be abated at negative or zero cost. Furthermore, in the same year, over 17% of agricultural GHG emissions (7.85 MtCO2e) could be abated at a cost of less than the 2022 Shadow Price of Carbon (£34 (tCO2e)-1). The development of robust MACCs faces a range of methodological hurdles that complicate cost-effectiveness appraisal in ALULUCF relative to other sectors. Nevertheless, the current analysis provides an initial route map of efficient measures for mitigation in UK agriculture. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Tim Chamen W.C.,CTF Europe | Moxey A.P.,Pareto Consulting | Towers W.,James Hutton Institute | Balana B.,James Hutton Institute | Hallett P.D.,University of Aberdeen
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2015

The costs and benefits of soil compaction mitigation are reviewed and analysed based on UK examples and soil types in this article. The review focusses first on operational costs, where the most definitive data are available. This includes the costs associated with remediation/alleviation strategies such as subsoiling. Next it considers the costs of limiting the occurrence of compaction by the adoption of new technologies. The environmental costs of soil compaction, through direct impacts at the farm gate on yields and inputs, and indirectly on ecosystem services provided by soil are also considered to assess the value of different approaches. Factors considered are the influence of soil, farm management practice and novel approaches that are either in use or being developed. Although data were limited and often context specific, the significance of soil compaction to farm gate gross margins was apparent. We examined subsoiling, targeted subsoiling and ploughing as soil compaction mitigation options, as well as low ground pressure tyres, tracked tractors and controlled traffic farming (CTF) as soil compaction avoidance technologies. For mitigation options, only targeted subsoiling resulted in a positive change to gross margin, between £0/ha for sandy soil and £22/ha for clay soil. All soil compaction avoidance technologies increased gross margins significantly, ranging from £26/ha for tracked tractors on sandy soil to £118/ha for CTF on clay soil. Avoidance technologies also decrease leaching and emissions of nitrogen, and require less fuel, providing a win-win situation for farmers and the environment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..


Barnes A.P.,Environment and Society Research Group | Moxey A.P.,Pareto Consulting | Vosough Ahmadi B.,Environment and Society Research Group | Borthwick F.A.,Environment and Society Research Group
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

With an increasing burden on public sector budgets, increased responsibility and cost sharing mechanisms for animal diseases are being considered. To achieve this, fiscal and non-fiscal intervention policies need to be designed such that they consistently promote positive disease risk management practices by animal keepers. This paper presents a review of the available evidence towards whether and how the level and type of funding mechanism affects change within biosecurity behaviours and the frequency of disease reporting. A Nuffield Health Ladder of Interventions approach is proposed as a way to frame the debate surrounding both current compensation mechanisms and how it is expected to change behaviour. Results of the review reveal a division between economic modelling approaches, which implicitly assume a causal link between payments and positive behaviours, and socio-geographic approaches which tend to ignore the influence of compensation mechanisms on influencing behaviours. Generally, economic studies suggest less than full compensation rates will encourage positive behaviours, but the non-economic literature indicate significant variation in response to compensation reflecting heterogeneity of livestock keepers in terms of their values, goals, risk attitudes, size of operation, animal species and production chain characteristics. This may be of encouragement to Western Governments seeking to shift cost burdens as it may induce greater targeting of non-fiscal mechanisms, or suggest more novel ways to augment current compensation mechanisms to both increase responsibility sharing and reduce this cost burden. This review suggests that a range of regulatory, fiscal and nudging policies are required to achieve socially optimal results with respect to positive behaviour change. However, the lack of directly available evidence which proves these causal links may hinder progress towards this optimal mixture of choice and non-choice based interventions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..


PubMed | Environment and Society Research Group and Pareto Consulting
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2015

With an increasing burden on public sector budgets, increased responsibility and cost sharing mechanisms for animal diseases are being considered. To achieve this, fiscal and non-fiscal intervention policies need to be designed such that they consistently promote positive disease risk management practices by animal keepers. This paper presents a review of the available evidence towards whether and how the level and type of funding mechanism affects change within biosecurity behaviours and the frequency of disease reporting. A Nuffield Health Ladder of Interventions approach is proposed as a way to frame the debate surrounding both current compensation mechanisms and how it is expected to change behaviour. Results of the review reveal a division between economic modelling approaches, which implicitly assume a causal link between payments and positive behaviours, and socio-geographic approaches which tend to ignore the influence of compensation mechanisms on influencing behaviours. Generally, economic studies suggest less than full compensation rates will encourage positive behaviours, but the non-economic literature indicate significant variation in response to compensation reflecting heterogeneity of livestock keepers in terms of their values, goals, risk attitudes, size of operation, animal species and production chain characteristics. This may be of encouragement to Western Governments seeking to shift cost burdens as it may induce greater targeting of non-fiscal mechanisms, or suggest more novel ways to augment current compensation mechanisms to both increase responsibility sharing and reduce this cost burden. This review suggests that a range of regulatory, fiscal and nudging policies are required to achieve socially optimal results with respect to positive behaviour change. However, the lack of directly available evidence which proves these causal links may hinder progress towards this optimal mixture of choice and non-choice based interventions.


Moxey A.,Pareto Consulting | White B.,University of Western Australia
Land Use Policy | Year: 2014

Result-oriented agri-environmental schemes offer some potential advantages that merit exploration. However, supporting the caution expressed by Burton and Schwarz in an earlier issue of this journal, this short note offers some additional observations on the need to retain a broader perspective of options for improving scheme performance through a mixed approach: a result-oriented approach will not by itself address all current design weaknesses and improvements may not necessarily require a payments-by-results approach. For example, better spatial targeting, payment differentiation and monitoring are equally compatible with action-oriented schemes. Moreover, achieving innovation and flexibility may require appropriate advisory support, which again is not restricted to a result-oriented approach. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Moxey A.,Pareto Consulting | Moran D.,SRUC
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Over 80% of UK peatlands are degraded to some extent and their widespread restoration could contribute to meeting various climate change, water quality and biodiversity policy challenges. Economic analysis of costs and benefits is, however, hampered by scientific uncertainty and a lack of data on biophysical conditions as well as the impacts and costs of restoration. This paper presents a simple 'ready-reckoner' of possible net economic benefits under different combinations of simplifying 'what if?' assumptions for key restoration parameters. The results strongly suggest that even a narrow focus on carbon benefits alone is sufficient to justify restoration in many cases, and the inclusion of possible additional non-carbon benefits reinforces this. However, results are sensitive to assumptions and better data for, in particular, restoration costs associated with modest emission savings from lightly degraded sites would be helpful. Some other areas for further research are also identified. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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