Parco Area delle Science

Parma, Italy

Parco Area delle Science

Parma, Italy

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Beghe D.,Parco Area delle Science | Beghe D.,CNR Tree and Timber Institute | Piotti A.,National Research Council Italy | Satovic Z.,University of Zagreb | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2017

Background and Aims Wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) is important from an economic and ecological point of view. The effects of anthropogenic activities may lead to the genetic erosion of its genetic patrimony, which has high value for breeding programmes. In particular, the consequences of the introgression from cultivated stands are strongly dependent on the extent of gene flow and therefore this work aims at quantitatively describing contemporary gene flow patterns in wild olive natural populations. Methods The studied wild population is located in an undisturbed forest, in southern Spain, considered one of the few extant hotspots of true oleaster diversity. A total of 225 potential father trees and seeds issued from five mother trees were genotyped by eight microsatellite markers. Levels of contemporary pollen flow, in terms of both pollen immigration rates and within-population dynamics, were measured through paternity analyses. Moreover, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was studied to assess the relative importance of seed and pollen dispersal in shaping the spatial distribution of genetic variation. Key Results The results showed that the population under study is characterized by a high genetic diversity, a relatively high pollen immigration rate (0·57), an average within-population pollen dispersal of about 107 m and weak but significant SGS up to 40 m. The population is a mosaic of several intermingled genetic clusters that is likely to be generated by spatially restricted seed dispersal. Moreover, wild oleasters were found to be selfincompatible and preferential mating between some genotypes was revealed. Conclusions Knowledge of the within-population genetic structure and gene flow dynamics will lead to identifying possible strategies aimed at limiting the effect of anthropogenic activities and improving breeding programmes for the conservation of olive tree forest genetic resources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.


Rizzoli C.,Parco Area delle Science | Pal R.,Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose College
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Copper(II) azido complex [CuL(μ-1,3-N3)] n (1) of a NNO donor tridentate Schiff base (HL = 2-[1-(methylamino-ethylimino)-methyl]-phenol containing single end-to-end μ-1,3-azido bridged 1D infinite chain has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy. X-ray single crystal structure analysis reveals that in 1, the central copper(II) ion displays a distorted square pyramidal coordination geometry and are linked by single EE azide bridges forming chains running parallel to the crystallographic b axis. The magnetic interaction revealed that 1 is antiferromagnetic in nature (J = -19.5 (±0.2) cm-1). The catalytic activity of the complex is investigated in a series of solvents for the oxidation of olefins using tert-butyl-hydroperoxide as oxidant. The results showed highest selectivity for 1 in acetonitrile medium.© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Andalusian Institute of Agricultural Research and Training IFAPA, Parco Area delle Science, University of Zagreb and National Research Council Italy
Type: | Journal: Annals of botany | Year: 2016

Wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) is important from an economic and ecological point of view. The effects of anthropogenic activities may lead to the genetic erosion of its genetic patrimony, which has high value for breeding programmes. In particular, the consequences of the introgression from cultivated stands are strongly dependent on the extent of gene flow and therefore this work aims at quantitatively describing contemporary gene flow patterns in wild olive natural populations.The studied wild population is located in an undisturbed forest, in southern Spain, considered one of the few extant hotspots of true oleaster diversity. A total of 225 potential father trees and seeds issued from five mother trees were genotyped by eight microsatellite markers. Levels of contemporary pollen flow, in terms of both pollen immigration rates and within-population dynamics, were measured through paternity analyses. Moreover, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was studied to assess the relative importance of seed and pollen dispersal in shaping the spatial distribution of genetic variation.The results showed that the population under study is characterized by a high genetic diversity, a relatively high pollen immigration rate (057), an average within-population pollen dispersal of about 107 m and weak but significant SGS up to 40 m. The population is a mosaic of several intermingled genetic clusters that is likely to be generated by spatially restricted seed dispersal. Moreover, wild oleasters were found to be self-incompatible and preferential mating between some genotypes was revealed.Knowledge of the within-population genetic structure and gene flow dynamics will lead to identifying possible strategies aimed at limiting the effect of anthropogenic activities and improving breeding programmes for the conservation of olive tree forest genetic resources.


Sciancalepore C.,Ferrari | Bondioli F.,Parco Area delle Science | Messori M.,Ferrari | Barrera G.,University of Turin | And 2 more authors.
Polymer (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

Magnetite nanoparticles in the range 7-10.5 nm were prepared by non hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) process in the presence of benzyl alcohol in different concentrations. The suspensions were mixed with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) and cured in the presence of ytterbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as cationic initiator. Magnetite nanoparticles and epoxy nanocomposites were characterized by structural, chemical and magnetic techniques. A procedure of data analysis is proposed to determine value, sign and surface contribution of the magnetic anisotropy of nanoparticles by comparing the information gained from field-cooled/zero-field-cooled magnetization curves and TEM images. Above blocking temperature, the nanoparticles dispersed in the epoxy resin give rise to an interacting superparamagnetic system and follow the corresponding scaling law. A model explains why the magnetic interaction energy depends not only on nanoparticle concentration in the epoxy but also on concentration fluctuations, being larger in samples where the nanoparticle dispersion is not uniform. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.


Amadori M.L.,Urbino University | Poldi G.,University of Bergamo | Barcelli S.,Urbino University | Baraldi P.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 5 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2016

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive diagnostic investigation carried out on five paintings (three wood panels and two paintings on canvas) by Lorenzo Lotto, one of the most significant artists of the Italian Renaissance in the first half of 16th century. The paintings considered belong to 1508-1522 period, corresponding to the most significant years of Lotto's evolution. A wide array of non-invasive (reflectance spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence) and micro-invasive analytical techniques (optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, micro-FTIR spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry) were applied in order to provide a large set of significant data, limiting as much as possible the sampling. This study has proved that Lotto's painting palette was typical of Venetian practice of that period, but some significant peculiarities emerged: the use of two kinds of red lakes, the addition of calcium carbonate and colourless powdered glass, the latter frequently found in pictorial and ground layers. Moreover, the integrated investigation showed that Lotto's technique was sometimes characterized by the use of coloured priming and multi-layer sequences with complex mixtures. Chromatographic analyses allowed to identify in all specimens: azelaic, palmitic and stearic acids, generally referring to the presence of drying oils. The extension of additional non-invasive examination to about 50 paintings by the same author, spanning from 1505 to around 1556, helped to verify the evolution in the use of some pigments, such as the yellow ones, where Pb-Sb yellow was used alongside Pb-Sn yellow. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Bergamo, Parco Area delle Science, Urbino University, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and University of Venice
Type: | Journal: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy | Year: 2016

This paper presents the results of a comprehensive diagnostic investigation carried out on five paintings (three wood panels and two paintings on canvas) by Lorenzo Lotto, one of the most significant artists of the Italian Renaissance in the first half of 16th century. The paintings considered belong to 1508-1522 period, corresponding to the most significant years of Lottos evolution. A wide array of non-invasive (reflectance spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence) and micro-invasive analytical techniques (optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, micro-FTIR spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry) were applied in order to provide a large set of significant data, limiting as much as possible the sampling. This study has proved that Lottos painting palette was typical of Venetian practice of that period, but some significant peculiarities emerged: the use of two kinds of red lakes, the addition of calcium carbonate and colourless powdered glass, the latter frequently found in pictorial and ground layers. Moreover, the integrated investigation showed that Lottos technique was sometimes characterized by the use of coloured priming and multi-layer sequences with complex mixtures. Chromatographic analyses allowed to identify in all specimens: azelaic, palmitic and stearic acids, generally referring to the presence of drying oils. The extension of additional non-invasive examination to about 50 paintings by the same author, spanning from 1505 to around 1556, helped to verify the evolution in the use of some pigments, such as the yellow ones, where Pb-Sb yellow was used alongside Pb-Sn yellow.


Rotondi A.,National Research Council Italy | Beghe D.,Parco Area delle Science | Fabbri A.,Parco Area delle Science | Ganino T.,Parco Area delle Science
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The relationship between genetic diversity and phenotype in olive, instrumental to improve the efficacy of olive clonal selection, is still far from being fully understood. This work reports on a comparison made between plant SSR genetic data and quality of monovarietal olive oils. Nine monovarietal oils produced by selected genotypes were characterised under chemical and sensory profiles. Fatty acid compositions were determined to evaluate quantitative differences among oils; some fatty acids are actually highly correlated with the genetic matrix, and PCA of fatty acids composition explains 85.53% variability. Moreover some oils characterised by high levels of oleic acid appeared interesting from a nutritional standpoint. Organoleptic profiles evidenced differences especially for the attributes defined as "pleasant flavours" oils obtained by different genetic matrices were characterised by different flavour intensities of tomato or artichoke, almond or aromatic herbs, correspondence analysis among sensory pleasant attributes and olive oil samples explaining 91.68% variability. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Carpinteri A.,Parco Area delle Science | Ronchei C.,Parco Area delle Science | Spagnoli A.,Parco Area delle Science | Vantadori S.,Parco Area delle Science
Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics | Year: 2014

A critical plane-based high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion, known as the Carpinteri-Spagnoli (C-S) criterion, is here extended to evaluate the fatigue lifetime of plain metallic components under constant amplitude loading in the low/medium-cycle regime. This extended criterion, based on strain components, resolves the strain tensor into the normal and shear components acting on the critical plane, which is determined on the basis of the principal strain courses over the loading cycle. An equivalent normal strain amplitude, computed through a quadratic combinations of strain components in the critical plane, is taken as the fatigue damage parameter. The required input parameters of the criterion are obtained from the classical Manson-Coffin-Basquin law for axial loading. A validation by experimental data pertaining the biaxial fatigue of plain steel specimens under both proportional and non-proportional loadings is performed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Carpinteri A.,Parco Area delle Science | Ronchei C.,Parco Area delle Science | Vantadori S.,Parco Area delle Science
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2014

In the present paper, fatigue crack propagation in V-notched round bars under cyclic eccentric axial loading is numerically evaluated using both a finite element analysis and an automated numerical model proposed by the first author. The stressintensity factors are computed at a set of points on the crack front by the finite element method. Then, a suitable fatigue crack growth law is applied to the above set of points. By varying the loading eccentricity value and the notch root geometry, several initial semi-elliptical surface crack configurations are analysed. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Carpinteri A.,Parco Area delle Science | Spagnoli A.,Parco Area delle Science | Ronchei C.,Parco Area delle Science | Vantadori S.,Parco Area delle Science
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2014

A critical plane-based high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion, known as the Carpinteri-Spagnoli (C-S) criterion, is here extended to evaluate the fatigue lifetime of plain metallic components under constant amplitude loading in the low/medium-cycle regime. An equivalent strain amplitude, computed through a quadratic combinations of strain components in the critical plane, is taken as the fatigue damage parameter. A validation by experimental data pertaining the biaxial fatigue of plain steel specimens under both proportional and non-proportional loadings is performed. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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