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Thinh V.N.,German Primate Center | Mootnick A.R.,Gibbon Conservation Center | Geissmann T.,University of Zurich | Li M.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 6 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

Background. Gibbons or small apes inhabit tropical and subtropical rain forests in Southeast Asia and adjacent regions, and are, next to great apes, our closest living relatives. With up to 16 species, gibbons form the most diverse group of living hominoids, but the number of taxa, their phylogenetic relationships and their phylogeography is controversial. To further the discussion of these issues we analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 85 individuals representing all gibbon species, including most subspecies. Results. Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions, several monophyletic clades were detected, corresponding to genera, species and subspecies. A significantly supported branching pattern was obtained for members of the genus Nomascus but not for the genus Hylobates. The phylogenetic relationships among the four genera were also not well resolved. Nevertheless, the new data permitted the estimation of divergence ages for all taxa for the first time and showed that most lineages emerged during four short time periods. In the first, between ∼6.7 and ∼8.3 mya, the four gibbon genera diverged from each other. In the second (∼3.0 - ∼3.9 mya) and in the third period (∼1.3 - ∼1.8 mya), Hylobates and Hoolock differentiated. Finally, between ∼0.5 and ∼1.1 mya, Hylobates lar diverged into subspecies. In contrast, differentiation of Nomascus into species and subspecies was a continuous and prolonged process lasting from ∼4.2 until ∼0.4 mya. Conclusions. Although relationships among gibbon taxa on various levels remain unresolved, the present study provides a more complete view of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the hylobatid family, and a more solid genetic basis for the taxonomic classification of the surviving taxa. We also show that mtDNA constitutes a useful marker for the accurate identification of individual gibbons, a tool which is urgently required to locate hunting hotspots and select individuals for captive breeding programs. Further studies including nuclear sequence data are necessary to completely understand the phylogeny and phylogeography of gibbons. © 2010 Thinh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Jurczynski K.,Duisburg Zoo | Lyashchenko K.P.,Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc. | Gomis D.,Jardin Zoologique de la Ville de Lyon | Moser I.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2011

In the last 7 yr, three different species of terrestrial mammals were diagnosed with Mycobacterium pinnipedii either within one collection or through the introduction of an infected animal from another zoo. The affected species included the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus), and crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the first zoo, all of these were living in exhibits adjacent to a group of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) and were cared for by the same keeper. One infected tapir was transferred to a different zoo and transmitted M. pinnipedii infection to three other Malayan tapirs. The tapirs were tested with various diagnostic methods, including comparative intradermal tuberculin test, PCR and culture of sputum samples, Rapid Test (RT), and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). The M. pinnipedii infection was confirmed at postmortem examination in all animals. RT and MAPIA showed the diagnostic potential for rapid antemortem detection of this important zoonotic disease. Copyright 2011 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Quintard B.,Parc Zoologique et Botanique de Mulhouse | Lohmann C.,Laboratoire Of Microbiologie | Lefaux B.,Parc Zoologique et Botanique de Mulhouse
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2015

A 23-yr old female Patagonian sea lion (Otaria byronia) presented multifocal to coalescing and ulcerative skin lesions on the lumbar region. Skin scrapings were collected and a microscopic examination was conducted followed by a fungal culture that revealed a Trychophyton rubrum infection, an anthropophilic dermatophytosis agent. Oral terbinafine and topical eniconazole were used as a treatment for a period of 75 days and complete recovery was achieved. Epidemiological analysis revealed a dermatophytosis case in one of the carnivore section keepers a few weeks before the lesions were diagnosed in the sea lion. © 2015 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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