Parc National des Ecrins

Gap, France

Parc National des Ecrins

Gap, France

Time filter

Source Type

Birck C.,Aix - Marseille University | Epaillard I.,Aix - Marseille University | Leccia M.F.,Aix - Marseille University | Crassous C.,Aix - Marseille University | And 24 more authors.
Eco.mont | Year: 2013

High-altitude lakes are vulnerable ecosystems that require protection and sustainability management, although their overall functioning is still poorly understood. In France protected area managers and scientists are cooperating to address this problem. Their results show the huge diversity of these altitude lakes and imply specificities in their functioning and in the way they respond to stressors. Multidisciplinary studies on these ecosystems, on their individual history and the stressors they face, need to be developed in a number of lakes, alongside long-term monitoring surveys. This is the objective of the Sentinel lakes network.


Bonet R.,Parc national des Ecrins | Arnaud F.,University of Savoy | Bodin X.,University of Savoy | Bouche M.,Parc national des Ecrins | And 16 more authors.
Eco.mont | Year: 2016

In accordance with their mission and as part of their long-term observation work, Ecrins National Park (NP) is making important contributions to the study and monitoring of phenomena related to climate change. Its work takes information collected at different meteorological stations and supplements it with analyses of vegetation changes through aerial and satellite images, measuring and monitoring of glaciers, and interdisciplinary programmes focused on high-altitude lakes, mountain pastures and indicator species. Through its mission and long-term observations, Ecrins NP (http://www.ecrinsparcnational. fr/) contributes to the environmental surveillance of many ecosystems. Working within many different networks and in partnership with various research teams, the park participates in the development of a better understanding of the important changes taking place.


Boulangeat I.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Georges D.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Dentant C.,Parc National des Ecrins | Bonet R.,Parc National des Ecrins | And 4 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2014

Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (e.g. productivity and stability) and of the maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. creating habitats for other species groups). While vegetation sensitivity to climate change has been widely investigated, its spatio-temporally response to the dual effects of land management and climate change has been ignored at landscape scale. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model called FATE-HD, which describes the dominant vegetation dynamics and associated functional diversity, in order to anticipate vegetation response to climate and land-use changes in both short and long-term perspectives. Using three contrasted management scenarios for the Ecrins National Park (French Alps) developed in collaboration with the park managers, and one regional climate change scenario, we tracked the dynamics of vegetation structure (forest expansion) and functional diversity over 100 yr of climate change and a further 400 additional years of stabilization. As expected, we observed a slow upward shift in forest cover distribution, which appears to be severely impacted by pasture management (i.e. maintenance or abandonment). The time lag before observing changes in vegetation cover was the result of demographic and seed dispersal processes. However, plant diversity response to environmental changes was rapid. After land abandonment, local diversity increased and spatial turnover was reduced, whereas local diversity decreased following land use intensification. Interestingly, in the long term, as both climate and management scenarios interacted, the regional diversity declined. Our innovative spatio-temporally explicit framework demonstrates that the vegetation may have contrasting responses to changes in the short and the long term. Moreover, climate and land-abandonment interact extensively leading to a decrease in both regional diversity and turnover in the long term. Based on our simulations we therefore suggest a continuing moderate intensity pasturing to maintain high levels of plant diversity in this system. © 2014 The Authors.


Thuiller W.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Gueguen M.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Georges D.,CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory | Bonet R.,Parc National des Ecrins | And 7 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2014

Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into α and β components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species' preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean α-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional β-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection. © 2014 The Authors.


Vincent J.,University Paris Diderot | Laurent B.,University Paris Diderot | Losno R.,University Paris Diderot | Losno R.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | And 18 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2016

Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French) have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps). Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south-north gradient, with values from 7.4g m-2 year-1 in Lampedusa (35°31'N, 12°37'E) to 1g m-2 year-1 in Le Casset (44°59'N, 6°28'E). The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2g m-2 wk-1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1g m-2 wk-1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5g m-2 wk-1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1g m-2 year-1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11-1 4g m-2 year-1 ). From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more than 80% of the major dust deposition events are recorded at only one station, suggesting that the dust provenance, transport and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry) of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results tend to indicate that wet deposition is the main form of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition (in the sense that no precipitation was detected at the surface) is far from being negligible, and contributes 10 to 46% to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site. ' Author(s) 2016.


PubMed | CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory, Parc National des Ecrins, Conservatoire Botanique National Alpin and Swiss Federal Institute of forest
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecography | Year: 2015

Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (


PubMed | CNRS Alpine Ecology Laboratory, Parc National des Ecrins, Swiss Federal Institute of forest and Domaine de Charance
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecography | Year: 2015

Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into and components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean -diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional -diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection.


Bonnet V.,Conservatoire Botanique National Alpin | Fort N.,Conservatoire Botanique National Alpin | Dentant C.,Parc National des Ecrins | Bonet R.,Parc National des Ecrins | And 3 more authors.
Acta Botanica Gallica | Year: 2015

There is an increasing need for data on the patterns of population changes for rare species at the regional, national and European scales in the context of the Natura 2000 reporting on the state of species conservation. This reporting requires the use of the same protocol over a whole region or country with the major constraint that it has to be shared by a large array of conservations and monitoring structures. The protocol has therefore to be both precise and reproducible but also simple enough to be used over a large number of sites and years, and has moreover to be accepted by various conservation structures.In this aim, the Alps-Ain flora conservation network (Réseau Alpes-Ain de Conservation de la Flore), a network composed of flora conservation stakeholders for 2 regions, Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur and Rhône-Alpes, set up a series of nested protocols to monitor populations at different spatial scales (levels). Each monitoring level is set up to answer to a specific aim and corresponds to a protocol shared by all the network actors. The first level, detailed below, is defined for the regional scale ("territory" level) with the site as observation unit. The second level aims at identifying if in a specific site ("station") a population is stable, expanding or regressing and if natural or anthropic factors can explain this dynamics. The observation unit is a plot or a transect and the variables measured are frequencies or numbers and environmental parameters. The third level is an individual-based survey ("individu") and aims at understanding the demographic processes affecting a population. The observation unit is here the individual plant. The link between the 3 levels is described in Figure 1.The "territory" level protocol was developed over several years of discussions and in situ tests on several species (Table 1). Its aim is to identify increases or decreases of species size at the scale of the region. The variables used for this monitoring are simple and easily reproducible: area of presence and frequency. During the process, we realized that even a simple protocol could not be applied to a large range of species. We therefore propose some variations on a common methodological base, depending on the biology of the species (longevity, clonality, dormancy, size of individuals.). An originality of the protocol is to note the non-detection of the species in a given point at a given time to be able to document the expansion or the regression of the species in the site. A first step therefore consists in defining the zone in which the species will be looked for, the prospection zone (ZP). This zone should correspond as much as possible to the potential habitat of the species and has to remain constant over time. Within this zone, the area of presence (AP) is determined using the envelope formed by the GPS points where the species is found. Population size is then estimated as the frequency of occurrence by contact-points along at least two transects positioned so as to take into account the environmental heterogeneity of the site (see Figure 1). For species that have very variable population sizes and distributions, the transects should be representative of the AP; for species with very stable populations, we recommend fixed transects to reduce year-to-year and spatial variations, however managers are free to choose the location of the transects. At least 100 points are taken for each transect in order to have a robust estimate of the frequency of occurrence. For species with low ground cover, we suggest replacing the contact-point by contact-areas, i.e. small plots positioned similarly to the points along the transects. The areas of the plots have to be decided in advance and should not change over time. The aim is to avoid extreme frequency values (close to 0 or 1) in order to be able to detect an increase or a decrease in population size. Each prospection zone corresponds to one data point. At the regional scale, the population is represented by the ensemble of the ZPs. To have a good estimate of the population size and its dynamics, the ZPs should correspond to a random or a stratified sample of all the existing sites. This is however difficult and in practice, the ZPs of the survey are the ones for which an organism can commit itself. The RAACF then has to make sure that the sample of ZPs is representative of the species distribution. The frequency of the survey depends on the biological characteristics of the species. For perennial species we suggest a time step of 3 to 5 years in the absence of catastrophic events. For annual or dormant species, the survey should be performed over 3-5 consecutive years in order to have a reliable estimate of AP and size and to smooth out the inter-annual (normal) fluctuations, and then repeated 3-5 years later. A web-service database was developed by the network to ensure the aggregation of the data. This method is a practical answer to the EU requirements in terms of assessment of populations of plant species in the framework of the EU Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC). © 2014 © 2014 Société botanique de France.


Dobremez L.,IRSTEA | Nettier B.,IRSTEA | Legeard J.-P.,Association Francaise de Pastoralisme | Caraguel B.,Federation des Alpages de l'Isere | And 4 more authors.
Revue de Geographie Alpine | Year: 2014

The Ecrins National Park organized a meeting of its Agriculture Commission to discuss repeated droughts and fears arising from the impact of alpine farming practices on high altitude environments. The alpine pasture was pronounced an area of shared challenges in terms of climate change, involving the co-responsibility of livestock farmers and the Park. It was also seen as an ideal area for observation and intervention based on cooperation. The ideas put forward led to the creation of the Sentinel Alpine Pastures programme. The ultimate aim of this programme is to anticipate the impact of climate events in order to ensure sustainable alpine pasture management. Studying modes of adaptation to events is part of a long-term approach to address the complex dynamics of climate change. We show how this approach, the information collection protocols and the data capitalization methods implemented aim to meet the requirements stemming from this current issue: involvement of all actors (livestock farmers and herdsmen, farming technicians, pastoral systems specialists, researchers and managers of protected areas), collective learning based on shared observations, and integration of an alpine pasture farms system. The programmeworks as a tool providing help with analysis and decision-making in relation to processes involving the climate, the environment, pastoral practices and livestock farming systems. The work collectives implementing it are also paving the way for new forms of governance in terms of the relations between pastoralism and local area stakeholders. © Journal of Alpine Research | Revue de géographie alpine.

Loading Parc National des Ecrins collaborators
Loading Parc National des Ecrins collaborators