Wilson J.R.U.,South African National Biodiversity Institute |
Wilson J.R.U.,Stellenbosch University |
Gairifo C.,Stellenbosch University |
Gairifo C.,University of Lisbon |
And 20 more authors.
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2011
Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new agents (notably vegetative feeders) can help mitigate existing widespread invasions. Trans-boundary sharing of information will assist efforts to limit future invasions, in particular, management strategies need to be better evaluated, monitored, published and publicised so that global best-practice procedures can be developed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lagabrielle E.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University |
Lagabrielle E.,IRD Montpellier |
Lagabrielle E.,University of Reunion Island |
Rouget M.,South African National Biodiversity Institute |
And 10 more authors.
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2011
This paper describes an operational protocol for integrating conservation and restoration with land-use planning in islands. Conservation challenges are intensified in insular systems due to higher ecosystem vulnerability, limited spatial options, low data availability, rapid land-use change and, globally, short-term vision planning. Our operational planning protocol integrates ecological and socio-economic factors to identify the best spatial options for conserving and restoring biodiversity, inside and outside extant reserves, while minimising future land-use conflicts. Conservation and restoration targets are formulated for species, habitats and ecological processes that support biodiversity. An optimal network of priority sites is selected to achieve those targets across the landscape. The prioritisation process integrates a Conservation Costs Index to optimise conservation and restoration investments. We discuss the outcomes of the planning protocol in terms of site prioritisation, stakeholders' participation and general implications for spatial planning in insular systems. As with many islands, the study area of Réunion Island has experienced rapid urban and agricultural expansion, which threatens its unique biodiversity. Forty three per cent of the island is currently protected in a National Park but only half of this reserve network contributes to the achievement of targets. An additional 21% of land should be conserved mainly to ensure the persistence of ecological connections between the marine, terrestrial and freshwater realms. Finally we emphasize that our method doesn't substitute the land-use planning debate but is aimed to better prepare the conservation sector for negotiating future land-use allocation with other socio-economic sectors in islands. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Baret S.,Parc National de La Reunion |
Lavergne C.,Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin |
Fontaine C.,Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin |
Saliman M.,Direction de lEnvironnement |
And 9 more authors.
Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) | Year: 2012
The knowledge of the biology and ecology of threatened plant species, more specifically the methodologies used to collect, propagate and cultivate them, as well as the existing threats, are often poorly known worldwide. On La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean), local people, NGOs and conservation stakeholders, have conducted numerous actions for the recovery of threatened plants since several decades. However, it is essential to set up a coherent methodology based on a "precautionary principle" promoting the cultivation of native species. In this paper, four strategic directions are proposed: to favor (1) in situ plantations in natural or seminatural habitat after restoration and (2) ex situ collection of threatened species, (3) to cultivate indigenous species in land development projects or of public interests (4) and in public gardens, schools or private areas. The proposed methodology also includes the dispersal capacities of plant species, their degree of threat in natural areas or the knowledge and the role of the various stakeholders. The implementation of a common tool allowing the traceability of diaspores during each step of the process and used by all stakeholders is proposed. We recognize the importance of adapting the methodology in very specific cases, according to the extreme rarity of some species or the genetic variability of others. At last, we emphasize the importance to carefully monitor the on-going conservation actions, to make sure of their efficiency or to adjust them, if needed. The authors highlight the interest of the proposed methodology for all the French Overseas territories.
The utility of existing passerine microsatellite markers for genetic studies in endangered species: As demonstrated for a critically endangered forest bird endemic to réunion island, the réunion cuckooshrike (Coracina newtoni)
Salmona J.,Societe dEtude Ornithologique de la Reunion SEOR |
Salmona J.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cienca |
Dawson D.A.,University of Sheffield |
Fouillot D.,Societe dEtude Ornithologique de la Reunion SEOR |
And 5 more authors.
Conservation Genetics Resources | Year: 2010
Genetic data are increasingly recognized for their utility in conservation programs. However, many endangered species belong to families that have been understudied. Due to the urgency of their conservation status it is important to quickly identify polymorphic microsatellite loci from available resources. We show for the Réunion Cuckoo shrike Coracina newtoni, that this strategy can be very useful. Using 110 passerine microsatellite primer sets we identified eighteen polymorphic loci and tested them in 25 C. newtoni individuals. Following a Bonferroni correction one pair of loci displayed linkage disequilibrium (P-value < 0.0001). © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.