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Ashraf S.,PARC Institute of Advance Studies in Agriculture | Shahzad A.,National Institute for Genomics and Advanced Biotechnology NIGAB | Shahzad A.,PARC Institute of Advance Studies in Agriculture | Karamat F.,PARC Institute of Advance Studies in Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Drought is a major limiting factor affecting productivity. Wheat is a major crop and staple food in Pakistan. Genetic linkage map construction based on linked DNA markers spanning whole wheat genome and subsequently QTL mapping for drought tolerance is a way forward to enhance breeder’s ability for effective selection. An F 8 population derived from the cross of OPATA x SH-349 has been used. An experiment was conducted at germination stage under controlled conditions. The drought was induced by15% PEG nutrient solution in acid washed sand medium. Microsatellite DNA markers data were used for linkage maps construction. Morphological data under drought and non-stressed conditions along with linkage maps data were used for QTL mapping. The results of QTL analysis using single marker analysis showed 14 SSR markers linked to QTLs for five traits in both drought and control condition. Using simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping 12 QTLs for different traits of interest were found. Implications of found QTLs and linked markers are discussed. © 2015, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

PubMed | PARC Institute of Advance Studies in Agriculture
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Virus research | Year: 2012

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed in a herd of goats (n = 55) at an organised farm in Islamabad, Pakistan. PPRV infection was confirmed using both antigen- and antibody-based detection methods, haemagglutination (HA) tests and molecular methods. Animals that survived natural infection developed a typical serological response and virus antigen was detected in fecal matter. Following determination of serological response to infection animals were grouped and either vaccinated or left unvaccinated: group 1 animals succumbed to infection (n = 5) and samples were analysed for PPRV antigen; group 2 animals developed clinical disease (n = 10) and were divided into 2 groups, half being vaccinated (group 2a) whilst the remainder were unvaccinated (group 2b); group 3 (n = 15) animals included those that developed only very mild clinical disease or no clinical disease; group 4 animals (n = 5) were negative for clinical disease and were housed as a negative control group. A variable antibody response was detected following resolution of the initial outbreak. Excretion of virus antigen was assessed at different time points following vaccination. Importantly, animals that were vaccinated (group 2a) excreted antigen in fecal matter for 1 month following vaccination whilst unvaccinated animals (group 2b) continued to shed virus antigen for 2 months. The potential for virus excretion in fecal matter and effects of vaccination upon virus infection are discussed. We postulate that excretion in fecal material may represent a mechanism of virus transmission following natural infection and that this mechanism may demonstrate a potential method by which PPRV outbreaks occur spontaneously in areas not previously known to have circulating virus.

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